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It was believed that the cause of the cognitive decline exhibited by human and non-human primates during normal aging was a loss of cortical neurons. It is now known that significant numbers of cortical neurons are not lost and other bases for the cognitive decline have been sought. One contributing factor may be changes in nerve fibers. With age some(More)
In the rhesus monkey, the myelin sheaths of nerve fibers in area 46 of prefrontal cortex and in splenium of the corpus callosum show age-related alterations in their structure. The alterations are of four basic types. Most common is splitting of the dense line of myelin sheaths to accommodate electron dense cytoplasm derived from the oligodendroglia. Less(More)
Labeling central nervous tissue from mature animals with antibodies to NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan reveals the existence of large numbers of NG2 positive cells, at least some of which are oligodendroglial progenitors. It is generally agreed that these cells differ from the classically defined neuroglia, since they are antigenetically different from(More)
The generation of new neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult mammals has been characterized in rodents, but the details of this process have not been described in the primate. Eleven young adult rhesus monkeys were given an injection of the DNA synthesis phase marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and killed at varying survival intervals (2 hours to 98(More)
During normal aging humans exhibit some cognitive decline, but it is difficult to determine the underlying causes of this decline, because information about cognitive status is rarely available and preservation of the brain is usually inadequate for detailed cytological examination. One solution to this problem is to use a nonhuman primate model, such as(More)
In myelinated axons, action potential conduction is dependent on the discrete clustering of ion channels at specialized regions of the axon, termed nodes of Ranvier. This organization is controlled, at least in part, by the adherence of myelin sheaths to the axolemma in the adjacent region of the paranode. Age-related disruption in the integrity of(More)
rTg4510 transgenic (TG) mice overexpress mutant (P301L) human tau protein. We have compared the dorsal premotor cortex of TG mice versus non-transgenic (NT) mice at 4, 9, and 13 months of age, using light (LM) and electron microscopy (EM). LM assessment shows that cortical thickness in TG mice is reduced by almost 50% from 4 to 13 months of age, while at(More)
The effects of normal aging on morphologic and electrophysiologic properties of layer 3 pyramidal neurons in rhesus monkey primary visual cortex (V1) were assessed with whole-cell, patch-clamp recordings in in vitro slices. In another cohort of monkeys, the ultrastructure of synapses in the layers 2-3 neuropil of V1 was assessed using electron microscopy.(More)
Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry is the method of choice for labeling newly generated cells in the brain. Most BrdU studies utilize paraformaldehyde-fixed brain tissue because of its compatibility with both BrdU and other immunohistochemical methods. However, stronger fixation is required for electron microscopic studies, and unfixed tissue is(More)