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INTRODUCTION The obstructed, infected kidney is a urological emergency. It has been accepted that the management of infected hydronephrosis secondary to ureteric stones is through prompt decompression of the collecting system. However, the optimal method of decompression has yet to be established. MATERIALS AND METHODS A PubMed and Medline search was(More)
The anthelmintic drug praziquantel has proved useful in the treatment of schistosomiasis. The precise mechanism by which praziquantel kills the parasites has yet to be elucidated. Here, John Kusel and colleagues review the current theories on praziquantel action and suggest future avenues for research, which becomes urgent in the light of some reports of(More)
Levamisole and pyrantel are old (1965) but useful anthelmintics that selectively activate nematode acetylcholine ion channel receptors; they are used to treat roundworm infections in humans and animals. Interest in their actions has surged, giving rise to new knowledge and technical advances, including an ability to reconstitute receptors that reveal more(More)
A muscle vesicle preparation from Oesophagostomum dentatum, a 5 mm parasitic nematode, was developed for single-channel recording. Properties of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors activated by the anthelmintic levamisole (10 microM) were investigated using cell-attached and isolated inside-out patches. The current-voltage relationships of the single-channel(More)
Paraherquamide is a novel natural anthelmintic product with a mode of action that is incompletely characterized. Nicotine and cholinergic-anthelmintic agonists of different chemical classes were used to produce contraction in Ascaris muscle strips. Paraherquamide and a semisynthetic derivative, 2-deoxy-paraherquamide, antagonized these responses. Analysis(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of parasitic nematodes are required for body movement and are targets of important "classical" anthelmintics like levamisole and pyrantel, as well as "novel" anthelmintics like tribendimidine and derquantel. Four biophysical subtypes of nAChR have been observed electrophysiologically in body muscle of the nematode(More)
The sustainable control of animal parasitic nematodes requires the development of efficient functional genomics platforms to facilitate target validation and enhance anthelmintic discovery. Unfortunately, the utility of RNA interference (RNAi) for the validation of novel drug targets in nematode parasites remains problematic. Ascaris suum is an important(More)
A two-micropipette current-clamp technique was used to record electrophysiological responses from the somatic muscle of Ascaris suum. Levamisole and acetylcholine were applied to the bag region of the muscle using a microperfusion system. Depolarizations produced by 10 s applications of 10 micro mol l(-1) levamisole or 20 s applications of 10 micro mol(More)
One of the most commonly identified features which is felt to be necessary for Linux TM to be considered "enterprise−ready" is High−Availability. High−Availabil− ity (HA) systems provide increased service availability through clustering techniques. HA clusters minimize availability interruptions by quickly switching services over from failed systems to(More)