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Minimal measurement error (reliability) during the collection of interval- and ratio-type data is critically important to sports medicine research. The main components of measurement error are systematic bias (e.g. general learning or fatigue effects on the tests) and random error due to biological or mechanical variation. Both error components should be(More)
The requirements for soccer play are multifactorial and distinguishing characteristics of elite players can be investigated using multivariate analysis. The aim of the present study was to apply a comprehensive test battery to young players with a view to distinguishing between elite and sub-elite groups on the basis of performance on test items. Thirty-one(More)
BACKGROUND Travelling across multiple time zones disrupts normal circadian rhythms and induces "jet lag". Possible effects of this on training and performance in athletes were concerns before the Sydney Olympic Games. OBJECTIVE To identify some determinants of jet lag and its symptoms. METHODS A mixture of athletes, their coaches, and academics(More)
The aim of this study was to explore and compare the magnitude and time-course of the shift in the angle-force curves obtained from maximal voluntary contractions of the elbow flexors, both before and 4 consecutive days after eccentric and isometric exercise. The maximal isometric force of the elbow flexors of fourteen young male volunteers was measured at(More)
The development of elbow flexor (biceps) and knee extensor (quadriceps) strength has been followed in a mixed longitudinal study of 50 boys and 50 girls from the age of 8 to 17 years. Sex differences in strength emerged at the time of peak height velocity and were especially marked for the biceps. Data for individual children were aligned to the time of(More)
This paper examines how selected physiological performance variables, such as maximal oxygen uptake, strength and power, might best be scaled for subject differences in body size. The apparent dilemma between using either ratio standards or a linear adjustment method to scale was investigated by considering how maximal oxygen uptake (l.min-1), peak and mean(More)
The public health challenges associated with rapid population ageing are likely to be exacerbated by poor physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of physical inactivity in a population-representative sample of older adults in Ireland. This paper reports a secondary analysis of data from 4892 adults aged 60+ from the(More)
Short episodes of high intensity exercise transiently increase serum levels of BDNF in humans, but serum levels of BDNF at rest appear to be lower in more physically active humans with greater levels of energy expenditure. The relationship between serum BDNF concentration, cardio-respiratory fitness (Astrand-Rhyming test estimated VO2 max) and volume of(More)
Exercise results in release of brain derived neurotrophic factor into the circulation; however, little is known about the changes in serum and plasma brain derived neurotrophic factor concentrations and factors influencing brain derived neurotrophic factor during exercise and recovery. Serum (n=23) and plasma (n=10) brain derived neurotrophic factor(More)
Using the results from the end-of-season (1992-93) league tables, overall home advantage was confirmed in the eight major divisions of the English and Scottish football leagues. The degree of home advantage was found to vary significantly across the divisions. Furthermore, these divisional differences in home advantage were found to be significantly(More)