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OBJECTIVES This study examined whether networks of drug-injecting and sexual relationships among drug injectors are associated with individual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus and with behavioral likelihood of future infection. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of 767 drug injectors in New York City was performed with chain-referral and(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the incidence/predictors of transitions to injecting among noninjecting heroin users (NIUs). METHODS Street-recruited NIUs in New York City, March/1996-March/2003, were interviewed for a prospective cohort study about social network influence (communication promoting injecting; exposure to injectors) and individual susceptibility.(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine HIV risk behavior and HIV infection among new initiates into illicit drug injection in New York City. DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional surveys of injecting drug users (IDUs) recruited from a large detoxification treatment program (n=2489) and a street store-front research site (n=2630) in New York City from 1990 through 1996.(More)
Studies among injection drug users (IDUs) find a higher prevalence of HIV infection among black and Puerto Rican IDUs than among white IDUs. Risk behaviors seldom explain these differences. We examine how risk networks contribute to racial/ethnic variations in HIV prevalence. Six hundred sixty-two IDUs were recruited on the street in Bushwick (New York(More)
Previous studies linking online sexual partnerships to behavioral risks among men who have sex with men (MSM) may be subject to confounding and imprecise measurement of partnership-specific risks. We examined behavioral risks associated with having only online, only offline, or both online and offline partners in the past year, the confounding effects of(More)
SUMMARY Performance characteristics of rapid assays for hepatitis C virus antibody were evaluated in 4 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System injection drug use sites. The highest assay-specific sensitivities achieved for the Chembio, MedMira and OraSure tests were 94.0%, 78.9%, and 97.4%, respectively; the highest specificities were 97.7%, 83.3%, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To review human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction interventions among injecting drug users (IDUs) that have adopted a network approach. METHODS The design and outcomes of selected network-based interventions among IDUs are reviewed using the network concepts of the dyad (two-person relationship), the personal risk network (an index(More)
BACKGROUND In syringe-mediated drug-sharing (backloading), injecting drug users (IDU) use their syringes to mix drugs and to give measured shares to other IDU by squirting drug solution into the syringes of other IDU. Backloading has been discussed as a potential HIV risk factor, but its role as an HIV transmission route has not been established(More)
From 1988 to 1991, 6,882 drug injectors in 15 US cities were interviewed and had serum samples collected. The interviews and samples were analyzed for determination of significant predictors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion in the 10 low seroprevalence cities and the five high seroprevalence cities. The unit of analysis was the period of(More)
OBJECTIVES This report documents the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among self-reported noninjecting drug users recruited from two New York City neighborhoods. METHODS Participants were recruited in separate studies from East Harlem and the Lower East Side of Manhattan and were administered structured questionnaires and tested for HCV. (More)