Alan N. Howard

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A controlled study was made of the effects of natural orange juice, synthetic orange juice, and placebo in the prevention of the common cold; both natural and synthetic orange juices contained 80 mg of ascorbic acid daily. Three-hundred sixty-two healthy normal young adult volunteers, ages 17 to 25 years, were studied for 72 days with 97% of participants(More)
The effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with intermittent moderate-intensity exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, effort and salivary concentrations of cortisol and melatonin were examined. Subjects were divided into a creatine supplementation group and a placebo group. They took 5 g of creatine monohydrate(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation on the cognitive performance of elderly people. Participants were divided into two groups, which were tested on random number generation, forward and backward number and spatial recall, and long-term memory tasks to establish a baseline level. Group 1 (n = 15) were given 5 g(More)
PURPOSE At the macula, the carotenoids meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), lutein (L), and zeaxanthin (Z) are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP). This study was designed to measure serum and macular responses to a macular carotenoid formulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ten subjects were recruited into this study (five normal and five with early age-related(More)
PURPOSE To compare the impact of sustained supplementation using different macular carotenoid formulations on macular pigment (MP) and visual function in early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PATIENTS AND METHODS Sixty-seven subjects with early AMD were randomly assigned to: Group 1 (20 mg per day lutein (L), 0.86 mg per day zeaxanthin (Z); Ultra(More)
Red wine polyphenols (RWPPs) were obtained from red wine by absorption and elution from a resin column. Red wine (375 mL/d), white wine (375 mL/d), RWPPs (1 g/d, equivalent to 375 mL red wine/d) in capsules, RWPPs (1 g/d) dissolved in white wine, or a control alcoholic drink (40 g ethanol/d) was given to groups of 6-9 healthy men for 2 wk. Plasma LDL was(More)
BACKGROUND Antioxidant enrichment of LDL can increase its resistance to oxidation and hence reduce its atherogenicity. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether in vivo supplementation with nonalcoholic red wine extract and quercetin can increase the oxidative resistance of LDL, and also whether the supplementation has any effect on(More)
BACKGROUND Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease with multiple risk factors, many of which appear to involve oxidative stress. Macular pigment, with its antioxidant and light-screening properties, is thought to be protective against AMD. A result has been the appearance of dietary supplements containing the macular carotenoids, lutein and(More)
This study was designed to investigate the impact of macular carotenoid supplementation on the spatial profile of macular pigment (MP) in subjects where the profile does not exhibit the typical central peak (i.e. peaked MP at foveal epicentre). Thirty one healthy subjects with such atypical MP spatial profiles were assigned to one of three intervention(More)
PURPOSE This study was designed to investigate serum and macular response to, and safety of supplementation with, meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), lutein (L), and zeaxanthin (Z), the carotenoids that constitute macular pigment (MP). METHODS Forty-four healthy subjects were recruited into this randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Subjects consumed one(More)