Researchers and policy makers have identified various achievement gaps in the academic progress of U.S. students based on race, class, and language. To help close such gaps, two approaches might be considered: (a) School and district leaders might increase control over teaching and curriculum, choosing a proven reform strategy and enforcing a minimum… (More)
An earlier version of the paper was circulated under the title \What is the Probability of a Stock Market Crash?." Any remaining errors are our responsibility alone.
The use of cannabis is embedded within many societies, mostly used by the young and widely perceived to be safe. Increasing concern regarding the potential for cannabis to cause mental health effects has dominated cannabis research, and the potential adverse respiratory effects have received relatively little attention. We report a rare case of 22-year-old… (More)
Pulmonary Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma is a rare and low grade tumor of endothelial origin found in the lungs. At onset patients are usually asymptomatic or present with non-specific symptoms. Chest imaging shows the presence of multiple, bilateral small nodules and diagnosis usually requires a lung biopsy. At this time there is no standardized… (More)
The reproduction of this work for commercial purposes is strictly prohibited. Nongovernmental users may copy and distribute this document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this copyright notice is reproduced in all copies. Nongovernmental users may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further… (More)
Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia, described in 1992 by the Centers for Disease Control, is characterized by persistent CD4+ lymphocytopenia (less than 300 cells per micro-liter) in nonimmunosuppressed, HIV negative individuals, who present with atypical infections. This rare though likely undiagnosed entity is associated with chronic disseminated forms of… (More)
Using a database of virtually all American prisoners of war (POWs) during World War II, we examine for the first time how hierarchy affects success. Survival declines as the hierarchy of a prisoner's group more closely matches the military population or becomes steeper. Those in the most hierarchical groups were 20% less likely to survive than those in the… (More)
The objective of this paper is to develop a theoretical analysis of how innovative securities are designed in response to various market imperfections, using the specific example of "mandatory convertibles," which are securities that automatically ("mandatorily") convert to common stock on a pre-specified date. We consider a firm facing a financial market… (More)
participants at Brandeis University for their valuable comments and suggestions.
are also acknowledged. Previous versions of this paper were presented at the ITG and AlphaSimplex weekly workshops. The views expressed here are the author's and not necessarily those of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta or the Federal Reserve System. Any remaining errors are the authors responsibility. on the " Publications " link and then " Working… (More)