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Ultrasound imaging has recently been used to distinguish the length changes of muscle fascicles from those of the whole muscle tendon complex during real life movements. The complicated three-dimensional architecture of pennate muscles can however cause heterogeneity in the length changes along the length of a muscle. Here we use ultrasonography to examine(More)
Measurement of peak vertical ground reaction force (GRFz) from multiple limbs simultaneously during high-speed, over-ground locomotion would enhance our understanding of the locomotor mechanics of cursorial animals. Here, we evaluate the accuracy of predicting peak GRFz from duty factor (the proportion of the stride for which the limb is in contact with the(More)
Muscles are required to perform or absorb mechanical work under different conditions. However the ability of a muscle to do this depends on the interaction between its contractile components and its elastic components. In the present study we have used ultrasound to examine the length changes of the gastrocnemius medialis muscle fascicle along with those of(More)
Animals in their natural environments are confronted with a regular need to perform rapid accelerations (for example when escaping from predators or chasing prey). Such acceleration requires net positive mechanical work to be performed on the centre of mass by skeletal muscle. Here we determined how pelvic limb joints contribute to the mechanical work and(More)
We studied the strategies used by cursorial bipeds (ostriches) to maneuver during running. Eight ostriches were induced to run along a trackway and execute turns. Ground reaction forces and three-dimensional kinematics of the body and leg joints were simultaneously recorded, allowing calculation of joint angles and quasi-static net joint torques. Sidesteps,(More)
The blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni can live for years in the hepatic portal system of its human host and so must possess very effective mechanisms of immune evasion. The key to understanding how these operate lies in defining the molecular organisation of the exposed parasite surface. The adult worm is covered by a syncytial tegument, bounded externally by(More)
Compliant tendons act as energy stores, which benefit the energetics and power output of a muscle-tendon unit. However the compliance of tendon and the material properties may vary between individuals and hence alter the energy storing capacity of the tendon. We aimed to determine the in vivo Achilles tendon (AT) stress and strain during one-legged hopping(More)
Maximum running speed is constrained by the speed at which the limbs can be swung forwards and backwards, and by the force they can withstand while in contact with the ground. Humans sprinting around banked bends change the duration of foot contact to spread the time over which the load is applied, thereby keeping the force on their legs constant. We show(More)
We provide quantitative anatomical data on the muscle-tendon units of the equine pelvic limb. Specifically, we recorded muscle mass, fascicle length, pennation angle, tendon mass and tendon rest length. Physiological cross sectional area was then determined and maximum isometric force estimated. There was proximal-to-distal reduction in muscle volume and(More)