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Minimal measurement error (reliability) during the collection of interval- and ratio-type data is critically important to sports medicine research. The main components of measurement error are systematic bias (e.g. general learning or fatigue effects on the tests) and random error due to biological or mechanical variation. Both error components should be(More)
The requirements for soccer play are multifactorial and distinguishing characteristics of elite players can be investigated using multivariate analysis. The aim of the present study was to apply a comprehensive test battery to young players with a view to distinguishing between elite and sub-elite groups on the basis of performance on test items. Thirty-one(More)
This paper examines how selected physiological performance variables, such as maximal oxygen uptake, strength and power, might best be scaled for subject differences in body size. The apparent dilemma between using either ratio standards or a linear adjustment method to scale was investigated by considering how maximal oxygen uptake (l.min-1), peak and mean(More)
The aim of this study was to explore and compare the magnitude and time-course of the shift in the angle-force curves obtained from maximal voluntary contractions of the elbow flexors, both before and 4 consecutive days after eccentric and isometric exercise. The maximal isometric force of the elbow flexors of fourteen young male volunteers was measured at(More)
BACKGROUND Travelling across multiple time zones disrupts normal circadian rhythms and induces "jet lag". Possible effects of this on training and performance in athletes were concerns before the Sydney Olympic Games. OBJECTIVE To identify some determinants of jet lag and its symptoms. METHODS A mixture of athletes, their coaches, and academics(More)
The development of elbow flexor (biceps) and knee extensor (quadriceps) strength has been followed in a mixed longitudinal study of 50 boys and 50 girls from the age of 8 to 17 years. Sex differences in strength emerged at the time of peak height velocity and were especially marked for the biceps. Data for individual children were aligned to the time of(More)
The aim of this review is to discuss some issues in the design and statistical analysis of sport performance research, rather than to supply an authoritative 'cookbook' of methods. In general, we try to communicate some possible solutions to the conundrum of how to maintain both internal and external validity, as well as optimize statistical power, in(More)
Muscle strength is thought to be a major factor in athletic success. However, the relationship between muscle strength and sprint performance has received little attention. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship in elite performers of isokinetic muscle strength across three lower limb joints and sprinting performance, including the use of(More)
The maximal physiological responses to treadmill running (TMR), shallow water running (SWR) and deep water running (DWR) while wearing a buoyancy vest were compared in 15 trained male runners. Measurements included oxygen consumption (VO2 max), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and heart rate (HR). Treadmill running elicited VO2 max and HRmax, which were(More)
The LifeShirt is a novel ambulatory monitoring system that records cardiorespiratory measurements outside the laboratory. Validity and reliability of cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt were assessed and two methods of calibrating the LifeShirt were compared. Participants performed an incremental treadmill test and a constant work rate(More)