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Minimal measurement error (reliability) during the collection of interval- and ratio-type data is critically important to sports medicine research. The main components of measurement error are systematic bias (e.g. general learning or fatigue effects on the tests) and random error due to biological or mechanical variation. Both error components should be(More)
1. The recovery of power output and muscle metabolites was examined following maximal sprint cycling exercise. Fourteen male subjects performed two 30 s cycle ergometer sprints separated by 1.5, 3 and 6 min of recovery, on three separate occasions. On a fourth occasion eight of the subjects performed only one 30 s sprint and muscle biopsies were obtained(More)
This paper examines how selected physiological performance variables, such as maximal oxygen uptake, strength and power, might best be scaled for subject differences in body size. The apparent dilemma between using either ratio standards or a linear adjustment method to scale was investigated by considering how maximal oxygen uptake (1·min−1), peak and mean(More)
The requirements for soccer play are multifactorial and distinguishing characteristics of elite players can be investigated using multivariate analysis. The aim of the present study was to apply a comprehensive test battery to young players with a view to distinguishing between elite and sub-elite groups on the basis of performance on test items. Thirty-one(More)
OBJECTIVE Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours have been identified as a problem amongst students. This present study investigated the prevalence and clustering of five lifestyle risk factors within a UK Higher Education (HE) institution during the period of April-May in 2008. METHOD In a cross-sectional design, 410 students completed a 'health and lifestyle'(More)
This investigation examines the effects of vertical and horizontal loading on the O2 intake (VO2) response of children (n = 8) and adults (n = 8) to treadmill running. In unloaded running, the children required a significantly greater VO2 (P less than 0.001) than the adults [mean difference 7 ml.kg-1.min-1 (18.5%)]. There was no significant difference in(More)
This study examined the physiological determinants of performance during rowing over 2,000 m on an ergometer in finalists from World Championship rowing or sculling competitions from all categories of competion rowing (19 male and 13 female heavyweight, 4 male and 5 female lightweight). Discontinuous incremental rowing to exhaustion established the blood(More)
OBJECTIVE The consensus of opinion suggests that when assessing measurement agreement, the most appropriate statistic to report is the "95% limits of agreement". The precise form that this interval takes depends on whether a positive relation exists between the differences in measurement methods (errors) and the size of the measurements--that is,(More)
The purpose of the present study was to examine the growth hormone (GH) response to treadmill sprinting in male (M) and female (F) sprint- and endurance-trained atheletes. A group of 11 sprint-trained (ST; 6M, 5F) and 12 endurance-trained (ET; 6M, 6F) athletes performed a maximal 30-s sprint on a nonmotorized treadmill. Peak power and mean power expressed(More)
The aim of this study was to explore and compare the magnitude and time-course of the shift in the angle-force curves obtained from maximal voluntary contractions of the elbow flexors, both before and 4 consecutive days after eccentric and isometric exercise. The maximal isometric force of the elbow flexors of fourteen young male volunteers was measured at(More)