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Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes that detoxify heterocyclic compounds (xenobiotics) by covalently linking glutathione to the substrate, forming a glutathione S-conjugate. A glutathione pump in the vacuolar membrane of barley actively sequesters herbicide-glutathione S-conjugates; glutathionation allows recognition and entry of the conjugates(More)
Anthocyanin pathway-specific transcriptional activators R and C1 from the monocot maize were expressed in two dicots, Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. Expression of R caused augmented anthocyanin pigmentation in both plant species and augmented trichome (hair) production in Arabidopsis. Alone, C1 had no effect. Hybrid transgenic Arabidopsis(More)
The Arabidopsis mutant ttg lacks both trichomes (epidermal hairs) and anthocyanin pigments. Trichomes and anthocyanins are restored by the constitutive expression of the maize transcriptional regulator (R). The expression of an R-glucocorticoid receptor chimeric protein results in a steroid hormone-dependent, conditional allele of R that functions in whole(More)
During plant reproduction, the central cell of the female gametophyte becomes fertilized to produce the endosperm, a storage tissue that nourishes the developing embryo within the seed. The molecular mechanisms controlling the specification and differentiation of the central cell are poorly understood. We identified a female gametophyte mutant in(More)
Endosperm, a storage tissue in the angiosperm seed, provides nutrients to the embryo during seed development and/or to the developing seedling during germination. A major event in endosperm development is the transition between the syncytial phase, during which the endosperm nuclei undergo many rounds of mitosis without cytokinesis, and the cellularized(More)
Maintaining and acquiring the pluripotent cell state in plants is critical to tissue regeneration and vegetative multiplication. Histone-based epigenetic mechanisms are important for regulating this undifferentiated state. Here we report the use of genetic and pharmacological experimental approaches to show that Arabidopsis cell suspensions and calluses(More)
Xenobiotic resistance in animals, plants, yeast, and bacteria is known to involve ATP binding cassette transporters that efflux invading toxins. We present data from yeast and a higher plant indicating that xenobiotic resistance also involves extracellular ATP degradation. Transgenic upregulation of ecto-ATPase alone confers resistance to organisms that(More)
Arabidopsis trichomes are large unicellular structures that develop on the surface of most shoot-derived organs. In leaves, the number, spacing and shape of trichomes is tightly regulated, and this process has been used as an experimental system to study the control of cell fate and pattern formation. The control of trichome initiation is complex: both the(More)
Phenotypically normal petunia plants carrying chromosomal inserts of either the tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) A or the B component DNA, as single or tandem inserts, were obtained using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid-based transformation system. Southern hybridization analysis revealed that the tandem, direct-repeat A plants contained free(More)
The molecular nature of biological variation is not well understood. Indeed, many questions persist regarding the types of molecular changes and the classes of genes that underlie morphological variation within and among species. Here we have taken a candidate gene approach based on previous mapping results to identify the gene and ultimately a polymorphism(More)