Alan M Holmes

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BACKGROUND Inflammation is a feature of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and increased circulating levels of cytokines are reported in patients with PAH. However, to date, no information exists on the significance of elevated cytokines or their potential as biomarkers. We sought to determine the levels of a range of cytokines in PAH and to examine(More)
Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type II receptor (BMPR-II) underlie most cases of heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH) and a significant proportion of sporadic cases. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) not only exhibit attenuated growth suppression by BMPs, but(More)
Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis; SSc) is characterised by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs in the context of autoimmunity and vascular perturbation. Overproduction of extracellular matrix components and loss of specialised epithelial structures are analogous to the process of scar formation after tissue injury. Fibroblasts are the resident cells of(More)
OBJECTIVE The excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, including type I collagen, is a key aspect in the pathogenesis of connective tissue diseases such as systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). To further our understanding of the mechanisms governing the dysregulation of type I collagen production in SSc, we investigated the role of the activator(More)
Rodent models produce data which underpin biomedical research and non-clinical drug trials, but translation from rodents into successful clinical outcomes is often lacking. There is a growing body of evidence showing that improving experimental design is key to improving the predictive nature of rodent studies and reducing the number of animals used in(More)
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