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BACKGROUND The inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a potential synthetic lethal therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancers with specific DNA-repair defects, including those arising in carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. We conducted a clinical evaluation in humans of olaparib (AZD2281), a novel, potent,(More)
Phorbol esters (e.g., TPA) activate protein kinase C (PKC), increase connexin43 (Cx43) phosphorylation, and decrease cell-cell communication via gap junctions in many cell types. We asked whether PKC directly phosphorylates and regulates Cx43. Rat epithelial T51B cells metabolically labeled with (32)P(i) yielded two-dimensional phosphotryptic maps of Cx43(More)
Gap junctions are a unique type of intercellular junction found in most animal cell types. Gap junctions permit the intercellular passage of small molecules and have been implicated in diverse biological processes, such as development, cellular metabolism, and cellular growth control. In vertebrates, gap junctions are composed of proteins from the(More)
Gap junctions are specialized membrane domains composed of collections of channels that directly connect neighboring cells providing for the cell-to-cell diffusion of small molecules, including ions, amino acids, nucleotides, and second messengers. Vertebrate gap junctions are composed of proteins encoded by the "connexin" gene family. In most cases(More)
Gap junctions are membrane channels that permit the interchange of ions and other low-molecular-weight molecules between adjacent cells. Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)-induced transformation is marked by an early and profound disruption of gap-junctional communication, suggesting that these membrane structures may serve as sites of pp60v-src action. We have begun(More)
Growth factors regulate cellular proliferation and differentiation by activating plasma membrane tyrosine kinase receptors and triggering a cascade of events mediated by intracellular signaling proteins. The mechanism underlying growth factor modification of cellular functions, such as gap-junctional communication (gjc), has not been established clearly.(More)
The dramatic shift in the pathological presentation of lung cancer [the proportional decrease in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and increase in adenocarcinoma (AC)] observed in the United States after the 1950s may have taken place as the result of the reduction in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the increase in N-nitrosamines in inhaled smoke(More)
Whereas target-specific drugs are available for treating ERBB2-overexpressing and hormone receptor-positive breast cancers, no tailored therapy exists for hormone receptor- and ERBB2-negative ("triple-negative") mammary carcinomas. Triple-negative tumors account for 15% of all breast cancers and frequently harbor defects in DNA double-strand break repair(More)
Activation of the Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascade is initiated by activation of growth factor receptors and regulates many cellular events, including cell cycle control. Our previous studies suggested that the connexin-43 gap junction protein may be a target of activated MAP kinase and(More)
Chemotherapy that is used to treat human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection focuses primarily on targeting virally encoded proteins. However, the combination of a short retroviral life cycle and high mutation rate leads to the selection of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants. One way to address this problem is to inhibit non-essential host cell(More)