Alan J. Waring

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Cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides are abundant in animal and plant tissues involved in host defense. In insects, most are synthesized in the fat body, an organ analogous to the liver of vertebrates. From human urine, we characterized a cysteine-rich peptide with three forms differing by amino-terminal truncation, and we named it hepcidin (Hepc) because(More)
The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans colonizes and invades a wide range of host tissues. Adherence to host constituents plays an important role in this process. Two members of the C. albicans Als protein family (Als1p and Als5p) have been found to mediate adherence; however, the functions of other members of this family are unknown. In this study,(More)
Human bone marrow expresses a pseudogene that encodes an antimicrobial peptide homologous to rhesus monkey circular minidefensins (delta-defensins). We prepared the putative ancestral human peptide by solid-phase synthesis and named it "retrocyclin." Retrocyclin did not cause direct inactivation of HIV-1, and its modest antibacterial properties resembled(More)
Human neutrophils contain two structurally distinct types of antimicrobial peptides, beta-sheet defensins (HNP-1 to HNP-4) and the alpha-helical peptide LL-37. We used radial diffusion assays and an improved National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards-type broth microdilution assay to compare the antimicrobial properties of LL-37, HNP-1, and(More)
Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is essential for normal lung surfactant function. Theoretical models predict that the disulfide cross-linked, N- and C-terminal domains of SP-B fold as charged amphipathic helices, and suggest that these adjacent helices participate in critical surfactant activities. This hypothesis is tested using a disulfide-linked construct(More)
Theta-defensins are circular octadecapeptides that contain an internal tridisulfide ladder. Because retrocyclin-1, an ancestral hominid theta-defensin, can protect human cells in vitro from infection by T- and M-tropic strains of HIV-1, we used surface plasmon resonance techniques to study its binding to glycoproteins and glycolipids implicated in HIV-1(More)
Theta-defensins are lectin-like, cyclic octadecapeptides found in the leukocytes of nonhuman primates. They are also homologues of the more familiar alpha-defensins expressed by humans and certain other mammals. This study compares the ability of six theta-defensins (hominid retrocyclins 1-3 and rhesus theta-defensins 1-3) and four human alpha-defensins(More)
We used solid-state NMR spectroscopy to investigate the oligomeric structure and insertion of protegrin-1 (PG-1), a beta-hairpin antimicrobial peptide, in lipid bilayers that mimic either the bacterial inner membrane [palmitoyloleoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPE/POPG) bilayers] or the red blood cell membrane(More)
We tested the ability of 20 synthetic theta defensins to protect cells from infection by type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2, respectively). The peptides included rhesus theta defensins (RTDs) 1 to 3, originally isolated from rhesus macaque leukocytes, and three peptides (retrocyclins 1 to 3) whose sequences were inferred from human(More)
Langmuir isotherms, fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to study lung surfactant specific proteins SP-B and SP-C in monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG), which are representative of the anionic lipids in native and replacement lung surfactants. Both SP-B and SP-C(More)