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Human neutrophils contain two structurally distinct types of antimicrobial peptides, beta-sheet defensins (HNP-1 to HNP-4) and the alpha-helical peptide LL-37. We used radial diffusion assays and an improved National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards-type broth microdilution assay to compare the antimicrobial properties of LL-37, HNP-1, and(More)
Langmuir isotherms, fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to study lung surfactant specific proteins SP-B and SP-C in monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG), which are representative of the anionic lipids in native and replacement lung surfactants. Both SP-B and SP-C(More)
Surfactant protein B (SP-B) is essential for normal lung surfactant function. Theoretical models predict that the disulfide cross-linked, N- and C-terminal domains of SP-B fold as charged amphipathic helices, and suggest that these adjacent helices participate in critical surfactant activities. This hypothesis is tested using a disulfide-linked construct(More)
Cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides are abundant in animal and plant tissues involved in host defense. In insects, most are synthesized in the fat body, an organ analogous to the liver of vertebrates. From human urine, we characterized a cysteine-rich peptide with three forms differing by amino-terminal truncation, and we named it hepcidin (Hepc) because(More)
Lipid bilayers containing the antimicrobial peptide protegrin-1 (PG-1) were studied by lamellar X-ray diffraction. Previously, we have shown that the peptide exists in two distinct states when associated with lipid bilayers depending on the peptide concentration [Heller, W. T., Waring, A. J., Lehrer, R. I., and Huang, H. W. (1998) Biochemistry 37,(More)
Protegrin-1 (PG-1) is a broad-spectrum beta-sheet antimicrobial peptide found in porcine leukocytes. The mechanism of action and the orientation of PG-1 in lipid bilayers are here investigated using (2)H, (31)P, (13)C, and (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy. (2)H spectra of mechanically aligned and chain-perdeuterated(More)
The orientation and dynamics of an 18-residue antimicrobial peptide, ovispirin, has been investigated using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Ovispirin is a cathelicidin-like model peptide (NH(2)-KNLRRIIRKIIHIIKKYG-COOH) with potent, broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. (15)N NMR spectra of oriented ovispirin reconstituted into synthetic phospholipids show(More)
Theta-defensins are circular octadecapeptides that contain an internal tridisulfide ladder. Because retrocyclin-1, an ancestral hominid theta-defensin, can protect human cells in vitro from infection by T- and M-tropic strains of HIV-1, we used surface plasmon resonance techniques to study its binding to glycoproteins and glycolipids implicated in HIV-1(More)
We tested the ability of 20 synthetic theta defensins to protect cells from infection by type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2, respectively). The peptides included rhesus theta defensins (RTDs) 1 to 3, originally isolated from rhesus macaque leukocytes, and three peptides (retrocyclins 1 to 3) whose sequences were inferred from human(More)
Protegrin-1 (PG-1), a beta-sheet antimicrobial peptide, was studied in aligned lipid bilayers by oriented circular dichroism (OCD). All of its spectra measured in a variety of lipid compositions were linear superpositions of two primary basis spectra, indicating that PG-1 existed in two different states in membranes. We designated these as state S and state(More)