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The protein neural retina leucine zipper (Nrl) is a basic motif-leucine zipper transcription factor that is preferentially expressed in rod photoreceptors. It acts synergistically with Crx to regulate rhodopsin transcription. Missense mutations in human NRL have been associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Here we report that deletion of(More)
PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that Nrl(-)(/)(-) photoreceptors are cones, by comparing them with WT rods and cones using morphological, molecular, histochemical, and electrophysiological criteria. METHODS The photoreceptor layer of fixed retinal tissue of 4- to 6-week-old mice was examined in plastic sections by electron microscopy, and by confocal(More)
NRL, a bZIP transcription factor of the Maf subfamily, interacts with the homeodomain protein CRX and synergistically regulates rhodopsin expression. Here we report that six isoforms of NRL (29-35 kDa) are generated by phosphorylation and expressed specifically in the mammalian retina. The anti-NRL antibody also cross-reacts with a cytosolic 45-kDa protein,(More)
X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous degenerative disease of the retina. At least five loci have been mapped for XLRP; of these, RP2 and RP3 account for 10%-20% and 70%-90% of genetically identifiable disease, respectively. However, mutations in the respective genes, RP2 and RPGR, were detected in only 10% and(More)
The Maf-family transcription factor Nrl is a key regulator of photoreceptor differentiation in mammals. Ablation of the Nrl gene in mice leads to functional cones at the expense of rods. We show that a 2.5-kb Nrl promoter segment directs the expression of enhanced GFP specifically to rod photoreceptors and the pineal gland of transgenic mice. GFP is(More)
Genetic linkage, genome mismatch scanning, and analysis of patients with alterations of chromosome 6 have indicated that a major locus for development of the anterior segment of the eye, IRID1, is located at 6p25. Abnormalities of this locus lead to glaucoma. FKHL7 (also called "FREAC3"), a member of the forkhead/winged-helix transcription-factor family,(More)
The shutoff mechanisms of the rod visual transduction cascade involve G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 1 (GRK1) phosphorylation of light-activated rhodopsin (R*) followed by rod arrestin binding. Deactivation of the cone phototransduction cascade in the mammalian retina is delineated poorly. In this study we sought to explore the potential(More)
X-linked forms of retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) are among the most severe, because of their early onset, often leading to significant vision loss before the 4th decade. Previously, the RP15 locus was assigned to Xp22, by linkage analysis of a single pedigree with "X-linked dominant cone-rod degeneration." After clinical reevaluation of a female in this(More)
Mutations in the forkhead-like 7 (FKHL7) gene have been recently shown to cause juvenile glaucoma and anterior segment anomalies. We report on a three-generation family with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS), harboring an alteration in the FKHL7 gene. Genetic linkage analyses excluded the ARS phenotype from chromosomes 4q25 and 13q14, the locations of the(More)
Color vision is supported by retinal cone photoreceptors that, in most mammals, express two photopigments sensitive to short (S-opsin) or middle (M-opsin) wavelengths. Expression of the Opn1sw and Opn1mw genes, encoding S-opsin and M-opsin, respectively, is under the control of nuclear receptors, including thyroid hormone receptor beta2 (TRbeta2), retinoid(More)