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PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that Nrl(-)(/)(-) photoreceptors are cones, by comparing them with WT rods and cones using morphological, molecular, histochemical, and electrophysiological criteria. METHODS The photoreceptor layer of fixed retinal tissue of 4- to 6-week-old mice was examined in plastic sections by electron microscopy, and by confocal(More)
The Maf-family transcription factor Nrl is a key regulator of photoreceptor differentiation in mammals. Ablation of the Nrl gene in mice leads to functional cones at the expense of rods. We show that a 2.5-kb Nrl promoter segment directs the expression of enhanced GFP specifically to rod photoreceptors and the pineal gland of transgenic mice. GFP is(More)
The shutoff mechanisms of the rod visual transduction cascade involve G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 1 (GRK1) phosphorylation of light-activated rhodopsin (R*) followed by rod arrestin binding. Deactivation of the cone phototransduction cascade in the mammalian retina is delineated poorly. In this study we sought to explore the potential(More)
Color vision is supported by retinal cone photoreceptors that, in most mammals, express two photopigments sensitive to short (S-opsin) or middle (M-opsin) wavelengths. Expression of the Opn1sw and Opn1mw genes, encoding S-opsin and M-opsin, respectively, is under the control of nuclear receptors, including thyroid hormone receptor beta2 (TRbeta2), retinoid(More)
The rod photoreceptor-specific neural retina leucine zipper protein Nrl is essential for rod differentiation and plays a critical role in regulating gene expression. In the mouse retina, rods account for 97% of the photoreceptors; however, in the absence of Nrl (Nrl-/-), no rods are present and a concomitant increase in cones is observed. A functional(More)
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is an indispensable, extrinsic cue that regulates progenitor and stem cell behavior in the developing and adult mammalian central nervous system. Here, we investigate the link between the Shh signaling pathway and Hes1, a classical Notch target. We show that Shh-driven stabilization of Hes1 is independent of Notch signaling and requires(More)
In mammalian retinas, rods and cones connect to distinct sets of bipolar cells. In the retina of Nrl (neural retina leucine zipper) knock-out mice, in which rods fail to form and all photoreceptors are cones, rod bipolar cells have normal morphology, pattern of staining, and lamination, but they form synaptic connections with cones. Hence, retinal(More)
PURPOSE To generate a profile of genes expressed in the native human retinal pigment epithelium and identify candidate genes for retinal and macular diseases. METHODS Two cDNA libraries (one amplified, the other unamplified) were constructed using RNA isolated from native human RPE sheets. The sequence from the 5' end was obtained for randomly selected(More)
This paper introduces a statistical methodology for identification of differentially expressed genes in DNA microarray experiments based on multiple criteria. These criteria are: false discovery rate (FDR); variance-normalized differential expression levels (paired t statistics); and minimum acceptable difference (MAD). The methodology also provides a set(More)
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) induces waves of neuronal depolarization that confer neuroprotection to subsequent ischemic events in the rat brain. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms elicited by CSD, we used representational difference analysis (RDA) to identify mRNAs induced by potassium depolarization in vivo. Using this approach, we have(More)