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The effects of aging on maximal voluntary strength and on the isometric twitch were determined in the ankle dorsiflexor and plantarflexor muscles of 111 healthy men and women aged 20-100 yr. Men were found to be stronger than women at all ages. In both sexes, the average values for maximum voluntary strength of the dorsiflexors and plantarflexors began to(More)
Twitch potentiation was studied in human tibialis anterior (TA) and plantarflexor (PF) muscles after maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Potentiation was greater in TA and other dorsiflexor (DF) muscles than in PF and was dependent on the intensity of the voluntary effect. It was also observed that potentiation was maximal after MVCs of approximately(More)
1. Human soleus muscles were fatigued under ischaemic conditions by intermittent stimulation at 15 Hz. When maximal voluntary plantarflexion was then attempted, the loss of torque was found to be associated with a reduction in voluntary EMG activity. 2. The decrease in EMG activity could not have been due to 'exhaustion' of descending motor drive in the(More)
The contractile properties of the triceps surae (medial and lateral gastrocnemii and soleus) have been studied in humans. In comparison with most other human muscles, the triceps complex had a slow twitch (mean contraction and half-relaxation times 112.4 +/- 11.1 and 99.6 +/- 14.4 ms, respectively) and a low tetanus fusion frequency (60 Hz). Stretching the(More)
Two healthy females and twelve healthy males, aged 19-24 yr, underwent strength training for periods of 9-21 wk. The muscles trained included extensor digitorum brevis (N = 3), soleus (N = 7), brachioradialis (N = 4), and the hypothenar muscles (N = 3). The effect of training on motoneuron excitability was measured as the degree to which two reflex(More)
The M wave (muscle compound action potential) has been shown to enlarge between successive 3-s voluntary contractions of the human thenar and extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) muscles. The changes, which affected both the amplitude and the area of the M wave, were more obvious in the thenar than in the EDB muscles. In the thenar muscles the mean amplitude was(More)
A method is described for investigating the contractile properties of the dorsiflexor muscles of the ankle. With the joint in the midposition the tibialis anterior was found to contribute less than half of the maximum voluntary torque, the remainder presumably being provided by the long extensors of the toes. The mean contraction and half-relaxation times(More)
1. The effects of repeated excitation on the compound action potential, or M wave, of mammalian muscle fibres have been investigated in the human biceps brachii. 2. During continuous indirect stimulation at 10 and 20 Hz the mean voltage-time area of the M wave doubled within the first minute, while the mean peak-to-peak amplitude increased by approximately(More)
1. Soleus muscles of anaesthetized rats were stimulated tetanically (4 s at 20 Hz every 5 s for 5 min), following which the resting and action potentials were measured in surface fibres. 2. At the end of the stimulation period, the mean resting potential was found to have increased from a control value of -79.5 +/- 4.8 mV (mean +/- S.D.) to -90.5 +/- 6.3(More)