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The effects of aging on maximal voluntary strength and on the isometric twitch were determined in the ankle dorsiflexor and plantarflexor muscles of 111 healthy men and women aged 20-100 yr. Men were found to be stronger than women at all ages. In both sexes, the average values for maximum voluntary strength of the dorsiflexors and plantarflexors began to(More)
An electrophysiological method is described for estimating the numbers of motor units in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle in man. The results obtained are compared with counts of axons in the nerve to the muscle. The significance of the sizes of the evoked motor unit potentials is discussed.
A study has been made of the effect of voluntary contraction on the `late' responses which can be recorded in muscles after indirect stimulation. Two late responses have been described of which the first was shown to consist mainly of a potentiated H-reflex. The potentiation of this wave was greatest in the abductor pollicis brevis muscle and depended(More)
Twitch potentiation was studied in human tibialis anterior (TA) and plantarflexor (PF) muscles after maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Potentiation was greater in TA and other dorsiflexor (DF) muscles than in PF and was dependent on the intensity of the voluntary effect. It was also observed that potentiation was maximal after MVCs of approximately(More)
Physiological studies have been made of extensor digitorum brevis muscles in 28 healthy subjects aged between 60 and 96. Within this elderly population there was evidence of muscle wasting and weakness. These changes were shown to result from a loss of functioning motor units. The surviving motor units were often enlarged and tended to have relatively slow(More)
1. Human soleus muscles were fatigued under ischaemic conditions by intermittent stimulation at 15 Hz. When maximal voluntary plantarflexion was then attempted, the loss of torque was found to be associated with a reduction in voluntary EMG activity. 2. The decrease in EMG activity could not have been due to 'exhaustion' of descending motor drive in the(More)
1. Changes in muscle excitation and in isometric twitch force have been studied for up to 8 h after fatiguing stimulation of the human biceps brachii. 2. Within 10 s of a cessation of the 20 Hz fatiguing tetanus, the amplitudes of the M waves (muscle compound action potentials) had returned to control values, whereas the twitch forces were reduced in all(More)
Two healthy females and twelve healthy males, aged 19-24 yr, underwent strength training for periods of 9-21 wk. The muscles trained included extensor digitorum brevis (N = 3), soleus (N = 7), brachioradialis (N = 4), and the hypothenar muscles (N = 3). The effect of training on motoneuron excitability was measured as the degree to which two reflex(More)