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BACKGROUND Antimicrobial use is recognized as a risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and outbreaks. We studied the relationship between PCR ribotype, antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic basis of resistance in response to exposure to antimicrobial agents. METHODS C. difficile isolates were cultured from 133 CDI patients for whom(More)
BACKGROUND Demographic changes are leading to an increase in the number of older drivers: as dementia is an age-related disease, there is also an increase in the numbers of drivers with dementia. Dementia can impact on both the mobility and safety of drivers, and the impact of formal assessment of driving is unknown in terms of either mobility or safety.(More)
Logical frameworks supporting higher-order abstract syntax (HOAS) allow a direct and concise specification of a wide variety of languages and deductive systems. Reasoning about such systems within the same framework is well-known to be problematic. We describe the new version of the Hybrid system, implemented on top of Isabelle/HOL (as well as Coq), in(More)
BACKGROUND It has been established internationally that road traffic accidents (RTAs) involving older drivers follow clearly different patterns of timing, location and outcomes from those of younger age groups. Older pedestrians are also a vulnerable group and fewer analyses have been undertaken of the phenomenology of their injuries and fatalities. We(More)
Host anti-toxin immune responses play important roles in Clostridium difficile disease and outcome. The relationship between host immune and inflammatory responses during severe C. difficile infection (CDI) and the risk of mortality has yet to be defined. We aimed to investigate the host systemic IgG anti-toxin immune responses, the in vitro cytotoxicity of(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Prediction of severe clinical outcomes in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is important to inform management decisions for optimum patient care. Currently, treatment recommendations for CDI vary based on disease severity but validated methods to predict severe disease are lacking. The aim of the study was to derive and validate a(More)
Hip dysplasia, an abnormal laxity of the hip joint, is seen in humans as well as dogs and is one of the most common skeletal disorders in dogs. Canine hip dysplasia is considered multifactorial and polygenic, and a variety of chromosomal regions have been associated with the disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study in Dutch Labrador(More)
The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly(More)