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We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime(More)
Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae,(More)
Molecular clocks have been used to date the divergence of humans and chimpanzees for nearly four decades. Nonetheless, this date and its confidence interval remain to be firmly established. In an effort to generate a genomic view of the human-chimpanzee divergence, we have analyzed 167 nuclear protein-coding genes and built a reliable confidence interval(More)
Genomic divergence between species can be quantified in terms of the number of chromosomal rearrangements that have occurred in the respective genomes following their divergence from a common ancestor. These rearrangements disrupt the structural similarity between genomes, with each rearrangement producing additional, albeit shorter, conserved segments.(More)
Molecular dating of species divergences has become an important means to add a temporal dimension to the Tree of Life. Increasingly larger datasets encompassing greater taxonomic diversity are becoming available to generate molecular timetrees by using sophisticated methods that model rate variation among lineages. However, the practical application of(More)
The rapid expansion of sequence data and the development of statistical approaches that embrace varying evolutionary rates among lineages have encouraged many more investigators to use DNA and protein data to time species divergences. Here, we report results from a systematic evaluation, by means of computer simulation, of the performance of two frequently(More)
Phylogenomics refers to the inference of historical relationships among species using genome-scale sequence data and to the use of phylogenetic analysis to infer protein function in multigene families. With rapidly decreasing sequencing costs, phylogenomics is becoming synonymous with evolutionary analysis of genome-scale and taxonomically densely sampled(More)
Modern technologies have made the sequencing of personal genomes routine. They have revealed thousands of nonsynonymous (amino acid altering) single nucleotide variants (nSNVs) of protein-coding DNA per genome. What do these variants foretell about an individual's predisposition to diseases? The experimental technologies required to carry out such(More)
the word " genome, " meaning the total hereditary material of an organism, was coined in 1920 (see Chapter 1), the general concept goes back at least as far as the 4th century BCE, when Aristotle implicated blood as the heredity substance. The blood of the mother, it was thought, supplied matter to the developing fetus whereas the semen (a purified form of(More)
DNA sequence alignment is a prerequisite to virtually all comparative genomic analyses, including the identification of conserved sequence motifs, estimation of evolutionary divergence between sequences, and inference of historical relationships among genes and species. While it is mere common sense that inaccuracies in multiple sequence alignments can have(More)