Alan H Gradman

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BACKGROUND The fixed-dose combination of any two antihypertensive drugs from different drug classes is typically more effective in reducing blood pressure than a dose increase of component monotherapy. We assessed the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of a vasodilating β blocker (nebivolol) and an angiotensin II receptor blocker (valsartan) in(More)
Since its discovery in the late 19th century, our conceptual understanding of the renin-angiotensin-aldos-terone system (RAAS) has undergone a process of continuous evolution. Renin was first described by Tigerstedt and Bergman, 1 who, in 1898, documented pressor effects of tissue extracts from rabbit kidneys. Later investigators established that the(More)
Despite the many therapeutic options available today for the treatment of hypertension, a sizable number of patients still remain resistant to treatment. The prevalence of resistant hypertension in the general population under optimal conditions is about 3-5%. Although several factors and conditions can be identified and corrected a percentage of(More)
The Medical Roundtable intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of FoxP2 Media LLC/The Medical Roundtable electronic documents to a non-FoxP2 Media LLC website is prohibited. Prior written permission is required from FoxP2 Media LLC to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of our documents for commercial use. For(More)
The Medical Roundtable intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of FoxP2 Media LLC/The Medical Roundtable electronic documents to a non-FoxP2 Media LLC website is prohibited. Prior written permission is required from FoxP2 Media LLC to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of our documents for commercial use. DR.(More)
Propranolol blood levels and the effect of these levels on hemodynamic parameters were evaluated in 25 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography. Fifteen patients were receiving high doses of propranolol (320--1920 mg/day) while ten patients were receiving conventional doses (80--240 mg/day). The high(More)
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