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Timothy syndrome (TS) is a multisystem disorder that causes syncope and sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias. Prominent features include congenital heart disease, immune deficiency, intermittent hypoglycemia, cognitive abnormalities, and autism. All TS individuals have syndactyly (webbing of fingers and toes). We discovered that TS resulted from a(More)
There is increasing evidence for strong genetic influences on athletic performance and for an evolutionary "trade-off" between performance traits for speed and endurance activities. We have recently demonstrated that the skeletal-muscle actin-binding protein alpha-actinin-3 is absent in 18% of healthy white individuals because of homozygosity for a common(More)
Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common, non-specific renal lesion. Although it is often secondary to other disorders, including HIV infection, obesity, hypertension and diabetes, FSGS also appears as an isolated, idiopathic condition. FSGS is characterized by increased urinary protein excretion and decreasing kidney function. Often, renal(More)
BACKGROUND The congenital long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is caused by mutations on several genes, all of which encode cardiac ion channels. The progressive understanding of the electrophysiological consequences of these mutations opens unforeseen possibilities for genotype-phenotype correlation studies. Preliminary observations suggested that the conditions(More)
CONTEXT The serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurons in the medulla oblongata project extensively to autonomic and respiratory nuclei in the brainstem and spinal cord and help regulate homeostatic function. Previously, abnormalities in 5-HT receptor binding in the medullae of infants dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were identified,(More)
The primary cause of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a mutation in the dystrophin gene leading to the absence of the corresponding RNA transcript and protein. Absence of dystrophin leads to disruption of the dystrophin-associated protein complex and substantial changes in skeletal muscle pathology. Although the histological pathology of dystrophic(More)
disease are labelled 'ESRD'. Urine protein measurements are shown below those individuals classified as affected or who carry ACTN4 mutations. Urine protein is indicated as either microalbumin excretion (expressed as mg per gram creati-nine), indicated by 'µ=', or total protein as grams per 24 h measured directly or estimated from protein/creatinine ratio(More)
The congenital nemaline myopathies are rare hereditary muscle disorders characterized by the presence in the muscle fibers of nemaline bodies consisting of proteins derived from the Z disc and thin filament. In a single large Australian family with an autosomal dominant form of nemaline myopathy, the disease is caused by a mutation in the alpha-tropomyosin(More)
Whole-exome sequencing (WES), which analyzes the coding sequence of most annotated genes in the human genome, is an ideal approach to studying fully penetrant autosomal-recessive diseases, and it has been very powerful in identifying disease-causing mutations even when enrollment of affected individuals is limited by reduced survival. In this study, we(More)