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disease are labelled 'ESRD'. Urine protein measurements are shown below those individuals classified as affected or who carry ACTN4 mutations. Urine protein is indicated as either microalbumin excretion (expressed as mg per gram creati-nine), indicated by 'µ=', or total protein as grams per 24 h measured directly or estimated from protein/creatinine ratio(More)
The mechanisms by which neurotransmitter receptors are immobilized at postsynaptic sites in neurons are largely unknown. The activity of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors is mechanosensitive and dependent on the integrity of actin, suggesting a functionally important interaction between NMDA receptors and the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. alpha-Actinin-2,(More)
There is increasing evidence for strong genetic influences on athletic performance and for an evolutionary "trade-off" between performance traits for speed and endurance activities. We have recently demonstrated that the skeletal-muscle actin-binding protein alpha-actinin-3 is absent in 18% of healthy white individuals because of homozygosity for a common(More)
Fast chemical neurotransmission is dependent on ionotropic receptors that are concentrated and immobilized at specific postsynaptic sites. The mechanisms of receptor clustering and anchoring in neuronal synapses are poorly understood but presumably involve molecular linkage of membrane receptor proteins to the postsynaptic cytoskeleton. Recently the(More)
CONTEXT The serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurons in the medulla oblongata project extensively to autonomic and respiratory nuclei in the brainstem and spinal cord and help regulate homeostatic function. Previously, abnormalities in 5-HT receptor binding in the medullae of infants dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were identified,(More)
The congenital nemaline myopathies are rare hereditary muscle disorders characterized by the presence in the muscle fibers of nemaline bodies consisting of proteins derived from the Z disc and thin filament. In a single large Australian family with an autosomal dominant form of nemaline myopathy, the disease is caused by a mutation in the alpha-tropomyosin(More)
BACKGROUND The congenital long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is caused by mutations on several genes, all of which encode cardiac ion channels. The progressive understanding of the electrophysiological consequences of these mutations opens unforeseen possibilities for genotype-phenotype correlation studies. Preliminary observations suggested that the conditions(More)
The primary cause of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a mutation in the dystrophin gene leading to the absence of the corresponding RNA transcript and protein. Absence of dystrophin leads to disruption of the dystrophin-associated protein complex and substantial changes in skeletal muscle pathology. Although the histological pathology of dystrophic(More)
The alpha-actinins are a multigene family of four actin-binding proteins related to dystrophin. The two skeletal muscle isoforms of alpha-actinin (ACTN2 and ACTN3) are major structural components of the Z-line involved in anchoring the actin-containing thin filaments. In humans, ACTN2 is expressed in all muscle fibres, while ACTN3 expression is restricted(More)
Muscle contraction results from the force generated between the thin filament protein actin and the thick filament protein myosin, which causes the thick and thin muscle filaments to slide past each other. There are skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and non-muscle isoforms of both actin and myosin. Inherited diseases in humans have been(More)