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We raised chickens with defocusing lenses of differing powers in front of their eyes. For this purpose, small hoods made from soft, thin leather were carefully fitted to their heads. Lenses were attached to the hoods by velcro fasteners and could be easily removed for cleaning. The powers of the lenses were such that their optical effects could be(More)
Corneal accommodation can account for up to 9 D of accommodation in a freely behaving chick. We have explored the possibility that changes in corneal curvature are due to changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) during accommodation. In an in vitro preparation we demonstrate that increasing the pressure will tend to flatten the cornea. We have used electrical(More)
To test whether visual experience can affect development of visual behavior in the fruitfly, Drosophila, we measured the visually-guided choice behavior of groups of flies reared in complete darkness, compared with controls reared in a normal light/dark cycle. We used a simple visual preference test, i.e. choice among four different visual targets each(More)
PURPOSE To describe the detailed anatomy of the ciliary region of the chicken eye. METHODS Fifty-two eyes from White Leghorn chickens were examined in the course of this study. Descriptions are based on specimens examined using microdissection and bright field microscopy of sections embedded in paraffin or epon. Microdissection was assisted through the(More)
Since 1813, when Crampton first described the ciliary muscle of the avian eye, there has been little agreement on how birds are able to change the focus of their eyes. Numerous later studies on the eyes of a variety of bird species contradicted earlier findings or proposed new accommodative mechanisms. The resulting confusion persists today, and a number of(More)
The Center for Extended Magnetohydro-dynamics Modeling 1 (CEMM) is the nation's premier research organization for simulating macroscopic dynamics in magnetically confined plasmas. With support from the SciDAC initiative, CEMM has brought together leading researchers in fluid-based plasma simulation, plasma theory, computational meshing, and parallel solver(More)
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