Alan Gabriel Contreras

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The development of chronic allograft rejection is based on the hypothesis that cumulative, time-dependent tissue injury eventually leads to a fibrotic response. In this issue of the JCI, Babu and colleagues found that alloimmune-mediated microvascular loss precedes tissue damage in murine orthotopic tracheal allografts (see the related article beginning on(More)
We have examined CD40-dependent signals in endothelial cells (EC) mediating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF-induced angiogenesis. We treated confluent cultures of EC with soluble CD40L (sCD40L), and by Western blot found a marked increase in the phosphorylation of Akt, 4EBP-1, and S6K1, compared with untreated cells. EC(More)
Malignancy is a major problem in patients treated with immunosuppressive agents. We have demonstrated that treatment with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) can induce the activation of proto-oncogenic Ras, and may promote a rapid progression of human renal cancer through the overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Interestingly, we found(More)
In this review, we discuss how changes in the intragraft microenvironment serve to promote or sustain the development of chronic allograft rejection. We propose two key elements within the microenvironment that contribute to the rejection process. The first is endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis that serve to create abnormal microvascular blood(More)
Cancer is an increasing and major problem after solid organ transplantation. In part, the increased cancer risk is associated with the use of immunosuppressive agents, especially calcineurin inhibitors. We propose that the effect of calcineurin inhibitors on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) leads to an angiogenic milieu that(More)
BACKGROUND Chemokines are well-established to function in the recruitment of leukocytes into allografts in the course of rejection. Moreover, some studies have indicated that there are organ-specific differences in chemokine function, but the mechanism accounting for this difference is not known. METHODS Fully major histocompatibility complex-mismatched(More)
Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) are used to prevent inflammatory diseases and allograft rejection. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) underlying their ability to promote the development and recurrence of cancer. Recent studies suggested that the chemokine receptor CXCR3 may play important roles in tumorigenesis. CXCR3 has two splice variants with(More)
Because somatic cell counts (SCC) of caprine milk are higher than SCC of bovine milk, the performance of antibiotic residue tests for screening bovine milk was investigated for caprine milk. Eighty-five does that were free of antibiotic usage for at least 30 d and that were free of clinical mastitis were sampled at three milkings during a 37-d period. At(More)
We reviewed the current status of liver transplantation in Latin America. We used data from the Latin American and Caribbean Transplant Society and national organizations and societies, as well as information obtained from local transplant leaders. Latin America has a population of 589 million (8.5% of world population) and more than 2,500 liver(More)
The development of cancer is a major problem in immunosuppressed patients, particularly after solid organ transplantation. We have recently shown that calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) used to treat transplant patients may play a critical role in the rapid progression of renal cancer. To examine the intracellular signaling events for CNI-mediated direct(More)