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Despite its recent evolutionary origin, the sex chromosome system of the plant Silene latifolia shows signs of progressive suppression of recombination having created evolutionary strata of different X-Y divergence on sex chromosomes. However, even after 8 years of effort, this result is based on analyses of five sex-linked gene sequences, and the maximum(More)
BACKGROUND The Edinburgh randomised trial of breast-cancer screening recruited women aged 45-64 years from 1978 to 1981 (cohort 1), and those aged 45-49 years during 1982-85 (cohorts 2 and 3). Results based on 14 years of follow-up and 270,000 woman-years of observation are reported. METHODS Breast-cancer mortality rates in the intervention group (28,628(More)
The plant Silene latifolia has separate sexes and sex chromosomes, and is of interest for studying the early stages of sex chromosome evolution, especially the evolution of non-recombining regions on the Y chromosome. Hitch-hiking processes associated with ongoing genetic degeneration of the non-recombining Y chromosome are predicted to reduce Y-linked(More)
We attempted to find a relationship between the microbiological properties of bloodstream isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the efficacy of vancomycin in the treatment of bacteremia. Vancomycin susceptibility testing was performed, and bactericidal activity was determined for 30 isolates from 30 different patients with MRSA(More)
Since the advent of the modern era of antimicrobial chemotherapy in the 1930s, animal infection models have allowed for the in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of experimentally induced infection. Today, animal pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) infection models serve as a cornerstone of the preclinical assessment process for(More)
With increasing clinical emergence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens and the paucity of new agents to combat these infections, colistin (administered as its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate [CMS]) has reemerged as a treatment option, especially for critically ill patients. There has been a dearth of pharmacokinetic (PK) data available(More)
BACKGROUND To determine whether, when primary breast cancer is treated by local excision supported by systemic therapy appropriate to the oestrogen receptor status (ER) of the tumour, local radiotherapy can be avoided. METHODS We carried out a randomised controlled trial in 585 patients aged less than 70 years with primary breast cancers of 4 cm or less(More)
The aim of this study was to assess upper limb morbidity following treatment for operable breast cancer. Patients were randomized to either mastectomy and axillary clearance (40 women: 12 with axillary nodal metastasis and 28 without axillary metastasis) or mastectomy and axillary sampling (54 women). Adjuvant radiotherapy was delivered to those in whom the(More)
Suramin is the first putative growth factor inhibitor in clinical trial that has demonstrated antitumor activity. Administration of suramin is complicated by a narrow therapeutic index and significant interpatient variability of measured pharmacokinetic parameters. Because both antitumor response and dose-limiting toxicities are related to plasma suramin(More)
Eighty-eight patients presenting with operable breast cancer of 4 cm or greater in diameter (T2, T3, N0, N1, M0) have received primary systemic therapy. Response was assessed following 12 weeks of systemic therapy by linear regression analysis of changes in tumour volume. Definitive locoregional surgery (mastectomy n = 82, wide local excision n = 6) was(More)