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Despite its recent evolutionary origin, the sex chromosome system of the plant Silene latifolia shows signs of progressive suppression of recombination having created evolutionary strata of different X-Y divergence on sex chromosomes. However, even after 8 years of effort, this result is based on analyses of five sex-linked gene sequences, and the maximum(More)
The plant Silene latifolia has separate sexes and sex chromosomes, and is of interest for studying the early stages of sex chromosome evolution, especially the evolution of non-recombining regions on the Y chromosome. Hitch-hiking processes associated with ongoing genetic degeneration of the non-recombining Y chromosome are predicted to reduce Y-linked(More)
Mechanisms involved in eroding fitness of evolving Y chromosomes have been the focus of much theoretical and empirical work. Evolving Y chromosomes are expected to accumulate transposable elements (TEs), but it is not known whether such accumulation contributes to their genetic degeneration. Among TEs, miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements are(More)
We have increased the density of genetic markers on the Arabidopsis lyrata chromosomes AL6 and AL7 corresponding to the A. thaliana chromosome IV, in order to determine chromosome rearrangements between these two species, and to compare recombination fractions across the same intervals. We confirm the two rearrangements previously inferred (a reciprocal(More)
BACKGROUND Polymyxin B is a last-line therapy for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. There is a dearth of pharmacokinetic data to guide dosing in critically ill patients. METHODS Twenty-four critically ill patients were enrolled and blood/urine samples were collected over a dosing interval at steady state. Polymyxin B concentrations were measured(More)
Numerous factors have been theorized to affect the development of antimicrobial resistance, including those specific to the host, the organism, the environment, the drug, and the drug prescriber. One variable under the control of the prescriber is the drug dosing regimen. Dosing regimens can vary in dose level, dosing interval, and treatment duration. The(More)
Polymyxins are often last-line therapeutic agents used to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. Recent reports of polymyxin-resistant A. baumannii highlight the urgent need for research into mechanisms of polymyxin resistance. This study employed genomic and transcriptomic analyses to investigate the mechanisms of polymyxin resistance(More)
We studied methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates to determine if the group II polymorphism at the accessory gene regulator (agr) locus demonstrated any relationship with the clinical efficacy of vancomycin. One hundred twenty-two MRSA isolates from 87 patients treated with vancomycin were evaluated. Forty-five of 87 patients had no(More)
In the plant genus Silene, separate sexes and sex chromosomes are believed to have evolved twice. Silene species that are wholly or largely hermaphroditic are assumed to represent the ancestral state from which dioecy evolved. This assumption is important for choice of outgroup species for inferring the genetic and chromosomal changes involved in the(More)