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Despite its recent evolutionary origin, the sex chromosome system of the plant Silene latifolia shows signs of progressive suppression of recombination having created evolutionary strata of different X-Y divergence on sex chromosomes. However, even after 8 years of effort, this result is based on analyses of five sex-linked gene sequences, and the maximum(More)
BACKGROUND The Edinburgh randomised trial of breast-cancer screening recruited women aged 45-64 years from 1978 to 1981 (cohort 1), and those aged 45-49 years during 1982-85 (cohorts 2 and 3). Results based on 14 years of follow-up and 270,000 woman-years of observation are reported. METHODS Breast-cancer mortality rates in the intervention group (28,628(More)
The plant Silene latifolia has separate sexes and sex chromosomes, and is of interest for studying the early stages of sex chromosome evolution, especially the evolution of non-recombining regions on the Y chromosome. Hitch-hiking processes associated with ongoing genetic degeneration of the non-recombining Y chromosome are predicted to reduce Y-linked(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether there are gender-specific differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metoprolol enantiomers. METHODS Twenty normal volunteers (10 men and 10 women) received 100 mg oral metoprolol tartrate twice daily for a total of nine doses. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were studied after the last dose. Subjects(More)
We attempted to find a relationship between the microbiological properties of bloodstream isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the efficacy of vancomycin in the treatment of bacteremia. Vancomycin susceptibility testing was performed, and bactericidal activity was determined for 30 isolates from 30 different patients with MRSA(More)
Seventy-four acutely ill patients were treated with intravenous ciprofloxacin at dosages ranging between 200 mg every 12 h and 400 mg every 8 h. A population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis relating drug exposure (and other factors) to infectious outcome was performed. Plasma samples were obtained and assayed for ciprofloxacin by high-performance(More)
Since the advent of the modern era of antimicrobial chemotherapy in the 1930s, animal infection models have allowed for the in vivo evaluation of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of experimentally induced infection. Today, animal pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) infection models serve as a cornerstone of the preclinical assessment process for(More)
Between January 1980 and October 1983, 417 patients were randomized for mastectomy followed by axillary node sampling or full axillary clearance. The aim of the study was to determine whether a standard 'four-node' axillary sample, followed by careful dissection of removed tissue, could accurately indicate the extent of local treatment required. Axillary(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine any cardiac or vascular morbidity associated with long term treatment with tamoxifen given after mastectomy for primary breast cancer. DESIGN Cohort study using linkage between database of a randomised trial and statistics of Scottish hospital inpatients to identify episodes of cardiac and vascular morbidity. SETTING NHS hospitals(More)