Alan Fletcher

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Wetlands seem to be especially vulnerable to invasions. Even though ≤6% of the earth’s land mass is wetland, 24% (8 of 33) of the world’s most invasive plants are wetland species. Furthermore, many wetland invaders form monotypes, which alter habitat structure, lower biodiversity (both number and “quality” of species), change nutrient cycling and(More)
OBJECTIVE To improve diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). METHODS Pooled data on initial and final diagnostic classification of suspected CJD patients were accumulated, including results of investigations derived from a coordinated multinational study of CJD. Prospective analysis for a comparison of clinical and(More)
The causes and geographic distribution of 267 cases of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are here updated at the millennium. Small numbers of still-occurring cases result from disease onsets after longer and longer incubation periods following infection by cadaveric human growth hormone or dura mater grafts manufactured and distributed before the(More)
OBJECTIVE To ascertain all persons who developed a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) within Australia during the 30-year period 1970 to 1999 through a comprehensive national surveillance program and subject the group to detailed epidemiologic analysis. METHODS Cases were ascertained through reviews of morbidity separation coding data from all(More)
PURPOSE Wnt ligands play a major role in development and are important in cancer. Expression microarray analysis correlates one member of this family, WNT5A, to a subclass of melanomas with increased motility and invasion. There are no large studies of clinical samples primarily addressing the importance of WNT5A in melanoma progression or outcome.(More)
Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is the most lethal form of skin cancer. Along with some benign melanocytic tumors, the majority shows BRAF or NRAS mutation, but it is not known whether these are essential to all forms of melanocytic neoplasia. We screened 79 melanocytic tumors of different types for BRAF and NRAS mutations and looked at MAPK pathway activity using(More)
OBJECTIVE The serial quantification of MRI lesion load in multiple sclerosis provides an effective tool for monitoring disease progression and this has led to its increasing use as an outcome measure in treatment trials. Segmentation techniques must display a high degree of precision and reliability if they are to be responsive to small changes over time.(More)
BACKGROUND Apart from the small number of iatrogenic and familial cases, the cause of most cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is not known. We aimed to identify risk factors for sporadic CJD. METHODS In a case-control study, we compared the medical history and selected demographic characteristics of 241 definite (neuropathologically confirmed) and(More)
BACKGROUND The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies constitute a fascinating and biologically unique group of invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect both animals and humans. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia represent the more common human phenotypes. Excluding the(More)