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Evoked transmitter release depends upon calcium influx into synaptic boutons, but mechanisms regulating bouton calcium levels and spontaneous transmitter release are obscure. To understand these processes better, we monitored calcium transients in axons and presynaptic terminals of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slice cultures. Action potentials reliably(More)
Under some conditions, synaptically released glutamate can exert long-range actions in the cortical microcircuitry. To what extent glutamate spillover leads to direct cross talk among individual synapses remains unclear. We recorded NMDAR-mediated EPSCs in acute hippocampal slices at 35 degrees C by stimulating two independent pathways that converge on the(More)
The mechanisms by which long-term potentiation (LTP) is expressed are controversial, with evidence for both presynaptic and postsynaptic involvement. We have used confocal microscopy and Ca(2+)-sensitive dyes to study LTP at individual visualized synapses. Synaptically evoked Ca(2+) transients were imaged in distal dendritic spines of pyramidal cells in(More)
Key aspects of the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) remain unresolved despite decades of investigation. Alterations in postsynaptic glutamate receptors are believed to contribute to the expression of various forms of LTP and LTD, but the relative importance of presynaptic mechanisms is controversial. In addition,(More)
The lung is a relatively quiescent tissue comprised of infrequently proliferating epithelial, endothelial, and interstitial cell populations. No classical stem cell hierarchy has yet been described for the maintenance of this essential tissue; however, after injury, a number of lung cell types are able to proliferate and reconstitute the lung epithelium.(More)
We have used confocal microscopy to monitor synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients in the dendritic spines of hippocampal pyramidal cells. Individual spines respond to single afferent stimuli (<0.1 Hz) with Ca2+ transients or failures, reflecting the probability of transmitter release at the activated synapse. Both AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists(More)
  • Jaime Murphy, Ross Summer, Andrew A Wilson, Darrell N Kotton, Alan Fine
  • 2008
To further examine the half-life of alveolar macrophages, chimeric CD 45.2 mice were generated through bone marrow transplantation of donor CD 45.1 cells. Before administration of donor cells, recipient mice were divided into two cohorts: the first cohort received total body irradiation; the second cohort also received irradiation— however, the thorax,(More)
Biologically inspired neural networks which perform temporal sequence learning and generation are frequently based on hetero-associative memories. Recent work by Jensen and Lisman has suggested that a model which connects an auto-associator module to a hetero-associator module can perform this function. We modify this architecture in a simplified model(More)
The expression mechanism of long-term potentiation (LTP) remains controversial. Here we combine electrophysiology and Ca(2+) imaging to examine the role of silent synapses in LTP expression. Induction of LTP fails to change p(r) at these synapses but instead mediates an unmasking process that is sensitive to the inhibition of postsynaptic membrane fusion.(More)
Dysfunctional neural control of airway smooth muscle (ASM) is involved in inflammatory diseases, such as asthma. However, neurogenesis in the lung is poorly understood. This study uses mouse models to investigate developmental mechanisms of ASM innervation, a process that is highly coordinated with ASM formation during lung branching morphogenesis. We show(More)