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The induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is associated with a rapid and robust transcription of the immediate early gene Zif268. We used a mutant mouse with a targeted disruption of Zif268 to ask whether this gene, which encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, is required for the maintenance of late LTP and(More)
Evoked transmitter release depends upon calcium influx into synaptic boutons, but mechanisms regulating bouton calcium levels and spontaneous transmitter release are obscure. To understand these processes better, we monitored calcium transients in axons and presynaptic terminals of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slice cultures. Action potentials reliably(More)
We have used confocal microscopy to monitor synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients in the dendritic spines of hippocampal pyramidal cells. Individual spines respond to single afferent stimuli (<0.1 Hz) with Ca2+ transients or failures, reflecting the probability of transmitter release at the activated synapse. Both AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists(More)
Heart failure remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The cellular mechanism underlying the development of cardiac dysfunction is a decrease in the number of viable cardiomyocytes. Recent observations have suggested that the adult heart may contain a progenitor cell population. Side population (SP) cells, characterized by a distinct Hoechst dye(More)
Key aspects of the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) remain unresolved despite decades of investigation. Alterations in postsynaptic glutamate receptors are believed to contribute to the expression of various forms of LTP and LTD, but the relative importance of presynaptic mechanisms is controversial. In addition,(More)
Under some conditions, synaptically released glutamate can exert long-range actions in the cortical microcircuitry. To what extent glutamate spillover leads to direct cross talk among individual synapses remains unclear. We recorded NMDAR-mediated EPSCs in acute hippocampal slices at 35 degrees C by stimulating two independent pathways that converge on the(More)
The somatosensory (SI) cortex of mice displays a patterned, nonuniform distribution of neurons in layer IV called the 'barrelfield' ( ref. 1). Thalamocortical afferents (TCAs) that terminate in layer IV are segregated such that each barrel, a readily visible cylindrical array of neurons surrounding a cell-sparse center, represents a distinct receptive(More)
We assessed the capacity of plastic-adherent cultured bone marrow cells to serve as precursors of differentiated parenchymal cells of the lung. By intravenously delivering lacZ-labeled cells into wild-type recipient mice after bleomycin-induced lung injury, we detected marrow-derived cells engrafted in recipient lung parenchyma as cells with the(More)
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain; it is implicated in arousal, learning, and other cognitive functions. Recent studies indicate that nicotinic receptors contribute to these cholinergic effects, in addition to the established role of muscarinic receptors. In the hippocampus, where cholinergic involvement in learning(More)
Synaptic activation is associated with rapid changes in intracellular Ca(2+), while the extracellular Ca(2+) level is generally assumed to be constant. Here, using a novel optical method to measure changes in extracellular Ca(2+) at high spatial and temporal resolution, we find that brief trains of synaptic transmission in hippocampal area CA1 induce(More)