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The thermogenic activity of interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) in response to physiologic stimuli, such as cold exposure, is controlled by its sympathetic innervation. To determine which brain(More)
We have studied the responses to electrical and chemical stimulation of the ventrolateral medulla in the chloralose-anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated rat. Locations of most active(More)
Nicotine has two effects on reinforcement in traditional self-administration paradigms. It serves as a primary reinforcer by increasing the probability of behaviors that result in nicotine delivery.(More)
A replication-defective lentivirus vector that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of a synthetic dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH) promoter was used to define(More)