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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are an abundant form of genetic variation in the genome of every species and are useful for gene mapping and association studies. Of particular interest are non-synonymous SNPs, which may alter protein function and phenotype. We therefore examined bovine expressed sequences for non-synonymous SNPs and validated and(More)
BACKGROUND Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the multidrug transporter MDR1 have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in different studies. However, the data are highly controversial. Recently, 6 haplotype tagging SNPs (tSNPs), representing the haplotype variations of the MDR1 gene, were identified. The aims of this study were to(More)
AIM To investigate the role that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene play in the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in a New Zealand population, in the context of international studies. METHODS DNA samples from 388 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 405 ulcerative colitis(More)
Gastrointestinal nematodes constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality in grazing ruminants. Individual animals or breeds, however, are known to differ in their resistance to infection. Gene expression profiling allows us to examine large numbers of transcripts simultaneously in order to identify those transcripts that contribute to an animal's(More)
Despite growing evidence of rapid evolution in protein coding genes, the contribution of positive selection to intra- and interspecific differences in protein coding regions of the genome is unclear. We attempted to see if genes coding for secreted proteins and genes with narrow expression, specifically those preferentially expressed in the mammary gland,(More)
If mutation within the coding region of the genome is largely not adaptive, the ratio of nonsynonymous (dN) to synonymous substitutions (dS) per site (dN/dS) should be approximately equal among closely related species. Furthermore, dN/dS in divergence between species should be equivalent to dN/dS in polymorphisms. This hypothesis is of particular interest(More)
Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on(More)
BACKGROUND Variants in the DLG5 gene have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in samples from some, but not all populations. In particular, 2 nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), R30Q (rs1248696) and P1371Q (rs2289310), have been associated with an increased risk of IBD, and a common haplotype (called haplotype "A") has(More)
AIM There is increasing awareness of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes but limited data from Primary Care. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The anonymised records of 6457 male patients aged 18-80 years with diabetes were accessed. Within the last 2 years 391 men (6.0% of total) underwent measurement of serum testosterone. Data search was performed through the(More)
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 (NOD1) gene encodes a pattern recognition receptor that senses pathogens, leading to downstream responses characteristic of innate immunity. We investigated the role of NOD1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on IBD risk in a New Zealand Caucasian population, and studied Nod1 expression in(More)