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Research into the cognitive aspects of programming originated in the study of professional programmers (whether experts or students). Even " end-user " programmers in previous studies have often worked in organizations where programming is recognized to be demanding professional work – the term " power-user " recognizes this technical kudos. But as personal(More)
Most programs today are written not by professional software developers, but by people with expertise in other domains working towards goals for which they need computational support. For example, a teacher might write a grading spreadsheet to save time grading, or an interaction designer might use an interface builder to test some user interface design(More)
We describe extensions to the Excel spreadsheet that integrate user-defined functions into the spreadsheet grid, rather than treating them as a "bolt-on". Our first objective was to bring the benefits of additional programming language features to a system that is often not recognised as a programming language. Second, in a project involving the evolution(More)