Learn More
Ivan Sutherland's Sketchpad is one of the most influential computer programs ever written by an individual, as recognized in his citation for the Tur-ing award in 1988. The Sketchpad program itself had limited distribution — executable versions were limited to a customized machine at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory — so its influence has been via the ideas that(More)
to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires(More)
Research into the cognitive aspects of programming originated in the study of professional programmers (whether experts or students). Even " end-user " programmers in previous studies have often worked in organizations where programming is recognized to be demanding professional work – the term " power-user " recognizes this technical kudos. But as personal(More)
Most programs today are written not by professional software developers, but by people with expertise in other domains working towards goals for which they need computational support. For example, a teacher might write a grading spreadsheet to save time grading, or an interaction designer might use an interface builder to test some user interface design(More)
We describe extensions to the Excel spreadsheet that integrate user-defined functions into the spreadsheet grid, rather than treating them as a "bolt-on". Our first objective was to bring the benefits of additional programming language features to a system that is often not recognised as a programming language. Second, in a project involving the evolution(More)
People find it difficult to create and maintain abstractions. We often deal with abstract tasks by using notations that make the structure of the abstraction visible. PBE systems sometimes make it more difficult to create abstractions. The user has to second-guess the results of the inference algorithm, and sometimes cannot see any visual representation of(More)
1. Motivation The field of HCI is gradually achieving sound theoretical descriptions of the activities, context and cognition of computer system users. How do these research results get applied by the people who design new user interfaces? Although we have theoretical descriptions of the activities of system users, we have fewer descriptions of the design(More)
This tutorial, originally prepared for the BCS HCI Conference of 1998, will provide a concise introduction to Green's "Cognitive Dimensions", with illustrative practical applications. The Cognitive Dimensions Framework is one of the few theoretical approaches that provides a practical usability tool for everyday analysts and designers. It is unique in(More)