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Existing devices for communicating information to computers are bulky, slow to use, or unreliable. Dasher is a new interface incorporating language modelling and driven by continuous two-dimensional gestures, e.g. a mouse, touchscreen, or eye-tracker. Tests have shown that this device can be used to enter text at a rate of up to 34 words per minute,(More)
Research into the cognitive aspects of programming originated in the study of professional programmers (whether experts or students). Even " end-user " programmers in previous studies have often worked in organizations where programming is recognized to be demanding professional work – the term " power-user " recognizes this technical kudos. But as personal(More)
The Cognitive Dimensions of Notations framework has been created to assist the designers of notational systems and information artifacts to evaluate their designs with respect to the impact that they will have on the users of those designs. The framework emphasizes the design choices available to such designers, including characterization of the user's(More)
Most programs today are written not by professional software developers, but by people with expertise in other domains working towards goals for which they need computational support. For example, a teacher might write a grading spreadsheet to save time grading, or an interaction designer might use an interface builder to test some user interface design(More)
People find it difficult to create and maintain abstractions. We often deal with abstract tasks by using notations that make the structure of the abstraction visible. PBE systems sometimes make it more difficult to create abstractions. The user has to second-guess the results of the inference algorithm, and sometimes cannot see any visual representation of(More)
The field of HCI is gradually achieving sound theoretical descriptions of the activities, context and cognition of computer system users. How do these research results get applied by the people who design new user interfaces? Although we have theoretical descriptions of the activities of system users, we have fewer descriptions of the design activities of(More)
We describe extensions to the Excel spreadsheet that integrate user-defined functions into the spreadsheet grid, rather than treating them as a "bolt-on". Our first objective was to bring the benefits of additional programming language features to a system that is often not recognised as a programming language. Second, in a project involving the evolution(More)
We describe an application of the cognitive dimensions (CDs) of notations framework to tangible user interfaces (TUIs)—interaction with computers using physical devices other than mice and keyboards. We are particularly interested in situations where the TUI is used to construct some information structure (a manipulable solid diagram) and where that(More)
Despite causing many debates in human-computer interaction (HCI), the term “metaphor” remains a central element of design practice. This article investigates the history of ideas behind user-interface (UI) metaphor, not only technical developments, but also less familiar perspectives from education, philosophy, and the sociology of science. The(More)