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Virus particles are probably the most precisely defined nanometre-sized objects that can be formed by protein self-assembly. Although their natural function is the storage and transport of genetic material, they have more recently been applied as scaffolds for mineralization and as containers for the encapsulation of inorganic compounds. The reproductive(More)
In this study we report the immobilization of enzyme-containing polymersomes into a macromolecular hydrogel. Whereas free enzyme shows progressive leakage from the hydrogel in a period of days, leakage of the polymersome-protected enzyme is virtually absent. The preparation of the hydrogel occurs under mild conditions and does not inhibit the activity of(More)
Single-molecule techniques offer a unique tool for studying the dynamical behavior of individual molecules and provide the possibility to construct distributions from individual events rather than from a signal stemming from an ensemble of molecules. In biological systems, known for their complexity, these techniques make it possible to gain insights into(More)
Most enzyme studies are carried out in bulk aqueous solution, at the so-called ensemble level, but more recently studies have appeared in which enzyme activity is measured at the level of a single molecule, revealing previously unseen properties. To this end, enzymes have been chemically or physically anchored to a surface, which is often disadvantageous(More)
The precursor formamide 1 was employed instead of the monomer 2 because isocyanides are relatively unstable in air at room temperature. [19] a) [20] Molecular modeling shows that (in common with the phenyl benzo-ate compounds previously described [17]) an angle exists between the planar phenoxy and TTF ring systems. [21] The oxidation of the polymer was(More)
Nature has evolved complex enzyme architectures that facilitate the synthesis and manipulation of the biopolymers DNA and RNA, including enzymes capable of attaching to the biopolymer substrate and performing several rounds of catalysis before dissociating. Many of these 'processive' enzymes have a toroidal shape and completely enclose the biopolymer while(More)
Mechanical responsiveness is essential to all biological systems down to the level of tissues and cells. The intra- and extracellular mechanics of such systems are governed by a series of proteins, such as microtubules, actin, intermediate filaments and collagen. As a general design motif, these proteins self-assemble into helical structures and(More)
The use of bottom-up approaches to construct patterned surfaces for technological applications is appealing, but to date is applicable to only relatively small areas (approximately 10 square micrometers). We constructed highly periodic patterns at macroscopic length scales, in the range of square millimeters, by combining self-assembly of disk-like(More)
Using a single-molecule fluorescence approach, the time series of catalytic events of an enzymatic reaction can be monitored, yielding a sequence of fluorescent "on"- and "off"-states. An accurate on/off-assignment is complicated by the intrinsic and extrinsic noise in every single-molecule fluorescence experiment. Using simulated data, the performance of(More)