Alan E. Baron

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This paper discusses statistical methods for the classification of observations into one of two or more groups based on longitudinal observations. Measurements on subjects in longitudinal medical studies are often collected at different times and on a different number of occasions. Classical multivariate methods for linear discriminant analysis are(More)
Four older and 4 younger men were given extended exposure to a continuous-recognition memory procedure. Experimental variables included the type of stimulus (alphanumeric strings, words, or sentences), the intervals separating repeated items, gains and losses for correct and incorrect recognitions, and the extent of practice with the memory task. Signal(More)
We investigated the possibility that human-like fixed-interval performances would appear in rats given a variable-ratio history (Wanchisen, Tatham, & Mooney, 1989). Nine rats were trained under single or compound variable-ratio schedules and then under a fixed-interval 30-s schedule. The histories produced high fixed-interval rates that declined slowly over(More)
Rats responded under progressive-ratio schedules for sweetened milk reinforcers; each session ended when responding ceased for 10 min. Experiment 1 varied the concentration of milk and the duration of postreinforcement timeouts. Postreinforcement pausing increased as a positively accelerated function of the size of the ratio, and the rate of increase was(More)
In three experiments, human subjects were trained on a five-component multiple schedule with different fixed intervals of monetary reinforcement scheduled in the different components. Subjects uninstructed about the fixed-interval schedules manifested high and generally equivalent rates regardless of the particular component. By comparison, subjects given(More)
Young men pulled a plunger on mixed and multiple schedules in which periods of variable-interval monetary reinforcement alternated irregularly with periods of extinction (Experiment 1), or in which reinforcement was contingent on different degrees of effort in the two alternating components (Experiment 2). In the baseline conditions, the pair of stimuli(More)
Eight younger and 8 older women (17 to 25 and 62 to 75 years) practiced card sorting under timed conditions. Task complexity was varied by increasing the number of stimuli and by making sorting conditional on a second stimulus. The older women generally were slower, and age difference increased as a function of task complexity. Women of both ages responded(More)
Behavior analysts are undecided about the proper role to be played by inferential statistics in behavioral research. The traditional view, as expressed in Sidman's Tactics of Scientific Research (1960), was that inferential statistics has no place within a science that focuses on the steady-state behavior of individual organisms. Despite this admonition,(More)
Five younger (18 to 23 yrs) and five older (65 to 73 yrs) men were exposed to a series of immediate and delayed (0 to 15 seconds) matching-to-sample problems. Presentation of the pairs of delayed comparison stimuli was either signaled or unsignaled, and the sample contained either 1, 2, or 3 elements, one of which appeared as the positive stimulus. During(More)