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Mutations of Arabidopsis thaliana IRREGULAR XYLEM8 (IRX8) and IRX9 were previously shown to cause a collapsed xylem phenotype and decreases in xylose and cellulose in cell walls. In this study, we characterized IRX8 and IRX9 and performed chemical and structural analyses of glucuronoxylan (GX) from irx8 and irx9 plants. IRX8 and IRX9 are expressed(More)
Turgor-driven plant cell growth depends on wall structure. Two allelic l-fucose-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (mur1-1 and 1-2) are dwarfed and their rosette leaves do not grow normally. mur1 leaf cell walls contain normal amounts of the cell wall pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), but only half exists as a borate cross-linked(More)
Cellulose and xyloglucan (XG) assemble to form the cellulose/XG network, which is considered to be the dominant load-bearing structure in the growing cell walls of non-graminaceous land plants. We have extended the most commonly accepted model for the macromolecular organization of XG in this network, based on the structural and quantitative analysis of(More)
A full-length c-DNA encoding a xyloglucan-specific endo -beta-1, 4-glucanase (XEG) has been isolated from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus by expression cloning in yeast. The colonies expressing functional XEG were identified on agar plates containing azurine-dyed cross-linked xyloglucan. The cDNA encoding XEG was isolated, sequenced, cloned(More)
Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) generated against rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) purified from suspension-cultured sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells fall into three recognition groups. Four McAbs (group I) recognize an epitope that appears to be immunodominant and is present on RG-I from maize and sycamore maple, pectin and polygalacturonic acid from(More)
Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide in dicot wood, and thus elucidation of the xylan biosynthetic pathway is required to understand the mechanisms controlling wood formation. Genetic and chemical studies in Arabidopsis have implicated three genes, FRAGILE FIBER8 (FRA8), IRREGULAR XYLEM8 (IRX8) and IRREGULAR XYLEM9 (IRX9), in the biosynthesis of(More)
Xyloglucan is a well-characterized hemicellulosic polysaccharide that is present in the cell walls of all seed-bearing plants. The cell walls of avascular and seedless vascular plants are also believed to contain xyloglucan. However, these xyloglucans have not been structurally characterized. This lack of information is an impediment to understanding(More)
Glucuronoxylans with a backbone of 1,4-linked β-D-xylosyl residues are ubiquitous in the secondary walls of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Xylans have been reported to be present in hornwort cell walls, but their structures have not been determined. In contrast, the presence of xylans in the cell walls of mosses and liverworts remains a subject of debate.(More)
Rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) is a structurally complex pectic polysaccharide that was first identified in 1978 as a quantitatively minor component of suspension-cultured sycamore cell walls. Subsequent studies have shown that RG-II is present in the primary walls of angiosperms, gymnosperms, lycophytes, and pteridophytes and that its glycosyl sequence is(More)
Borate ester cross-linking of the cell wall pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) is required for the growth and development of angiosperms and gymnosperms. Here, we report that the amounts of borate cross-linked RG-II present in the sporophyte primary walls of members of the most primitive extant vascular plant groups (Lycopsida, Filicopsida,(More)