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Mutations of Arabidopsis thaliana IRREGULAR XYLEM8 (IRX8) and IRX9 were previously shown to cause a collapsed xylem phenotype and decreases in xylose and cellulose in cell walls. In this study, we characterized IRX8 and IRX9 and performed chemical and structural analyses of glucuronoxylan (GX) from irx8 and irx9 plants. IRX8 and IRX9 are expressed(More)
Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) generated against rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) purified from suspension-cultured sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells fall into three recognition groups. Four McAbs (group I) recognize an epitope that appears to be immunodominant and is present on RG-I from maize and sycamore maple, pectin and polygalacturonic acid from(More)
A full-length c-DNA encoding a xyloglucan-specific endo -beta-1, 4-glucanase (XEG) has been isolated from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus aculeatus by expression cloning in yeast. The colonies expressing functional XEG were identified on agar plates containing azurine-dyed cross-linked xyloglucan. The cDNA encoding XEG was isolated, sequenced, cloned(More)
Turgor-driven plant cell growth depends on wall structure. Two allelic l-fucose-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants (mur1-1 and 1-2) are dwarfed and their rosette leaves do not grow normally. mur1 leaf cell walls contain normal amounts of the cell wall pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), but only half exists as a borate cross-linked(More)
Cellulose and xyloglucan (XG) assemble to form the cellulose/XG network, which is considered to be the dominant load-bearing structure in the growing cell walls of non-graminaceous land plants. We have extended the most commonly accepted model for the macromolecular organization of XG in this network, based on the structural and quantitative analysis of(More)
Borate ester cross-linking of the cell wall pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) is required for the growth and development of angiosperms and gymnosperms. Here, we report that the amounts of borate cross-linked RG-II present in the sporophyte primary walls of members of the most primitive extant vascular plant groups (Lycopsida, Filicopsida,(More)
The cell-wall polysaccharides of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves have been isolated, purified, and characterized. The primary cell walls of all higher plants that have been studied contain cellulose, the three pectic polysaccharides homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan I and rhamnogalacturonan II, the two hemicelluloses xyloglucan and glucuronoarabinoxylan, and(More)
Secondary walls in vessels and fibers of dicotyledonous plants are mainly composed of cellulose, xylan, and lignin. Although genes involved in biosynthesis of cellulose and lignin have been intensively studied, little is known about genes participating in xylan synthesis. We found that Arabidopsis thaliana fragile fiber8 (fra8) is defective in xylan(More)
Rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) is a structurally complex pectic polysaccharide that was first identified in 1978 as a quantitatively minor component of suspension-cultured sycamore cell walls. Subsequent studies have shown that RG-II is present in the primary walls of angiosperms, gymnosperms, lycophytes, and pteridophytes and that its glycosyl sequence is(More)
Xyloglucan is a well-characterized hemicellulosic polysaccharide that is present in the cell walls of all seed-bearing plants. The cell walls of avascular and seedless vascular plants are also believed to contain xyloglucan. However, these xyloglucans have not been structurally characterized. This lack of information is an impediment to understanding(More)