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Incubation temperatures of the northern shoveler
- Alan D. Afton
- 1 May 1979
Egg air cell and nest air temperatures, measured in nests of wild northern shovelers near Delta, Manitoba, Canada, averaged 36.1 and 32.0 °C, respectively. Mean brood patch temperature of one capti...
Use of small fences to protect ground bird nests from mammalian predators