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Graphene is a new nanomaterial with unusual and useful physical and chemical properties. However, in the form of nanoplatelets this new, emerging material could pose unusual risks to the respiratory system after inhalation exposure. The graphene-based nanoplatelets used in this study are commercially available and consist of several sheets of graphene(More)
Data from inhalation studies in which AF/HAN rats were exposed to nine different types of asbestos dusts (in 13 separate experiments) are employed in a statistical analysis to determine if a measure of asbestos exposure (expressed as concentrations of structures with defined sizes, shapes and mineralogy) can be identified that satisfactorily predicts the(More)
In this article the volumetric overload hypothesis, which predicts the impairment of clearance of particles deposited in the lung in terms of particle volume, is reevaluated. The degree to which simple expressions of retained lung burden explain pulmonary responses to overload was investigated using data from a series of chronic inhalation experiments on(More)
For many years it has been accepted that fibre dimensions are the most important factor in the development of asbestos related disease with long fibres being more dangerous than short for all types of asbestos. This information has been derived from in vitro experiments and injection or implantation experiments since the kilogramme quantities of specially(More)
Rats were exposed for 1 year, with a 2-year follow-up, to dust clouds consisting of a mixture of amosite or chrysotile asbestos with either titanium dioxide or quartz. The addition of titanium dioxide to asbestos did not increase levels of pulmonary fibrosis above the amounts produced by chrysotile or amosite alone. Quartz, however, greatly increased(More)
Female strain A/J mice were exposed to unfiltered or HEPA-filtered environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Total suspended particulates (TSP) in the full smoke exposure chamber was 78.5 mg/m3 and in the filtered smoke chamber 0.1 mg/m3; nicotine concentrations in the full and filtered smoke chamber were 13.4 and 3.1 mg/m3, respectively. Animals exposed to(More)
Samples of commercially used asbestos, especially chrysotile, are frequently contaminated by small amounts of other fibrous minerals. Among these are tremolite and brucite although pure tremolite is also produced commercially in relatively small quantities. In order to determine how harmful commercially exploited tremolite might be in comparison with other(More)
This article describes the activity of an E-glass microfiber (104E) during chronic inhalation and intraperitoneal injection studies in rats. Results are compared with another microfiber of similar dissolution rate (k(dis)), code 100/475, and the more durable amosite asbestos, both of which we had previously used in similar experiments (Davis et al., 1996).(More)
The study objectives were to assess the ability of intratracheal injection methods to discriminate between nine fibre types in respect of pulmonary biopersistence, and to provide approximate estimates of relative biopersistence and durability for a study of general relationships with biological and toxicological responses. The test fibres included six(More)
The objective was to examine and quantify the influence of fibre dimensions, persistence in the lung, and dissolution and cell toxicity in vitro, on the risks of developing lung tumours in rats. Data were brought together from the studies carried out at the IOM under the Colt Fibre Research Programme, and from studies carried out in Switzerland and the USA(More)