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This investigation's objective was to identify risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a village in Upper Egypt with a moderately high prevalence (8.7%) of antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV). A representative sample of 6,012 (63%) of the 9,581 village inhabitants was included in the study. A questionnaire solicited information regarding risk factors for(More)
The authors utilized a recently developed DNA probe technique to obtain quantitative data on occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in samples collected monthly from 12 environmental sites in Lima, Peru, from November 1993 through March 1995. Peak V. cholerae counts ranged from 10(2)/ml to 10(5)/ml, with the highest counts in sewage-contaminated areas and irrigation(More)
The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a rural village in the Nile Delta with a high prevalence of antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV). One half of the village households were systematically selected, tested for anti-HCV, and interviewed: 973 of 3,999 (24.3%) subjects were anti-HCV-positive (reflecting prior(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered the most common etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Egypt, where prevalence of antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) is approximately 10-fold greater than in the United States and Europe. Reported are results that show the role of HCV in both overt and occult CLD, the risk factors for CLD and for HCV infection, and the(More)
Prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were studied in 2,587 pregnant women from three rural Egyptian villages in the Nile Delta being admitted to a prospective cohort study of maternal-infant transmission; 408 (15.8%) had antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV) and 279 (10.8%) also had HCV-RNA. Fewer than 1% gave a history of jaundice or(More)
This report describes a cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) in a rural Egyptian community in the Nile Delta. One half of the village households were systematically selected and examined by questionnaire and testing sera for anti-HCV and HCV RNA. Blood samples were obtained from 3, 888 (75.4%) of 5,156(More)
Supplemental assays, such as recombinant immunoblot assays (RIBA), are used to confirm detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, due to their expense, they are not widely used in developing countries. The purpose of our study was to compare the results of second- and third-generation (G2 and G3, respectively) enzyme immunoassays (EIAs)(More)
To support diagnostic and preventive decision making, we analyzed incidence of Lyme disease in Maryland on the zip code level. Areas of high incidence were identified on the Upper Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay and in counties north and east of Baltimore City. These latter foci, especially, are not visible when mapping Lyme disease on the county level.
The epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enterically-transmitted cause of acute viral hepatitis (AVH), is not fully understood. During outbreaks on the Indian subcontinent and elsewhere, HEV causes severe AVH with mortality rates around 20% during pregnancy. In Egypt, where prevalence of HEV antibodies (anti-HEV) in rural communities is very high,(More)
BACKGROUND Acute viral hepatitis is less frequent in Egypt than serum antibody levels suggest. Because acute viral hepatitis has a wide clinical spectrum, we tested the hypothesis that many cases are undetected because of mild illness caused by initial, early-childhood exposure to hepatitis viruses. METHODS During active case detection among 20,000(More)