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Known agonists of the orphan receptor GPR35 are kynurenic acid, zaprinast, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylproplyamino) benzoic acid, and lysophosphatidic acids. Their relatively low affinities for GPR35 and prominent off-target effects at other pathways, however, diminish their utility for understanding GPR35 signaling and for identifying potential therapeutic uses of(More)
1. Buprenorphine is a highly lipophilic derivative of oripavine. In rodent antinociceptive assays (writhing, tail pressure), buprenorphine had an action which was rapid in onset and of long duration; it was 25-40 times more potent than morphine after parenteral injection and 7-10 times more potent after oral administration. 2. The log dose-response(More)
Buprenorphine (BUP) is an oripavine analgesic that is beneficial in the maintenance treatment of opiate-dependent individuals. Although BUP has been studied extensively, relatively little is known about norbuprenorphine (norBUP), a major dealkylated metabolite of BUP. We now describe the binding of norBUP to opioid and nociceptin/orphanin FQ (ORL1)(More)
1. The general pharmacology of buprenorphine, a potent analgesic agent derived from oripavine, is described. 2. After cute administration of buprenorphine, the spontaneous locomotor activity of mice was increased; rats displayed stereotyped licking and biting movements; behavioural depression was marked in guinea-pigs but mild in rhesus monkeys. The(More)
Salvinorin A, TRK-820 (17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14beta-dihydroxy-4,5alpha-epoxy-6beta-[N-methyl-trans-3-(3-furyl) acrylamido]morphinan hydrochloride), and 3FLB (diethyl 2,4-di-[3-fluorophenyl]-3,7-dimethyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-9-one-1,5-dicarboxylate) are structurally distinctly different from U50,488H(More)
A comparison was made of the spontaneous nociceptive behaviors elicited by s.c. injection into the rat hind paw of the following 8 irritants: acetic acid, carrageenan, formalin, kaolin, platelet-activating factor, mustard oil (given topically), serotonin, and yeast. Two distinct quantifiable behaviors indicative of pain were identified: flinching/shaking of(More)
Salvinorin (Sal) A is a naturally occurring, selective kappa opioid receptor (KOPR) agonist with a short duration of action in vivo. Pharmacological properties of a C(2) derivative, 2-methoxymethyl (MOM)-Sal B, were characterized. MOM-Sal B bound to KOPR with high selectivity and displayed approximately 3-fold higher affinity than U50,488H(More)
Administration of 5% formalin into the rat or guinea pig hind paw evokes two spontaneous responses: flinching/shaking and licking/biting of the injected paw. The temporal and behavioral characteristics of these objective endpoints are described. Additionally, several practical suggestions aimed at standardizing this test for the evaluation of analgesics are(More)
Pain, a critical component of host defense, is one hallmark of the inflammatory response. We therefore hypothesized that pain might be exacerbated by proinflammatory chemokines. To test this hypothesis, CCR1 was cotransfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells together with transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a cation channel required(More)
The use of more than one drug to achieve a desired effect has been a common practice in pharmacologic testing and in clinical practice. For example, combinations of analgesics are frequently prescribed with a view to enhancing pain relief and reducing adverse effects. It is also well established that administration of more than one drug may give effects(More)