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Buprenorphine (BUP) is an oripavine analgesic that is beneficial in the maintenance treatment of opiate-dependent individuals. Although BUP has been studied extensively, relatively little is known about norbuprenorphine (norBUP), a major dealkylated metabolite of BUP. We now describe the binding of norBUP to opioid and nociceptin/orphanin FQ (ORL1)(More)
A comparison was made of the spontaneous nociceptive behaviors elicited by s.c. injection into the rat hind paw of the following 8 irritants: acetic acid, carrageenan, formalin, kaolin, platelet-activating factor, mustard oil (given topically), serotonin, and yeast. Two distinct quantifiable behaviors indicative of pain were identified: flinching/shaking of(More)
Pain, a critical component of host defense, is one hallmark of the inflammatory response. We therefore hypothesized that pain might be exacerbated by proinflammatory chemokines. To test this hypothesis, CCR1 was cotransfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells together with transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), a cation channel required(More)
1. The general pharmacology of buprenorphine, a potent analgesic agent derived from oripavine, is described. 2. After cute administration of buprenorphine, the spontaneous locomotor activity of mice was increased; rats displayed stereotyped licking and biting movements; behavioural depression was marked in guinea-pigs but mild in rhesus monkeys. The(More)
1. Buprenorphine is a highly lipophilic derivative of oripavine. In rodent antinociceptive assays (writhing, tail pressure), buprenorphine had an action which was rapid in onset and of long duration; it was 25-40 times more potent than morphine after parenteral injection and 7-10 times more potent after oral administration. 2. The log dose-response(More)
Administration of 5% formalin into the rat or guinea pig hind paw evokes two spontaneous responses: flinching/shaking and licking/biting of the injected paw. The temporal and behavioral characteristics of these objective endpoints are described. Additionally, several practical suggestions aimed at standardizing this test for the evaluation of analgesics are(More)
We examined whether sex differences in κ-opioid receptor (KOPR) pharmacology exist in guinea pigs, which are more similar to humans in the expression level and distribution of KOPR in the brain than rats and mice. The KOPR agonist trans-(±)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-[1-pyrrolidinyl]-cyclohexyl)benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate (U50,488H) produced a(More)
The individual contributions of central (brain) and peripheral (enteric) sites in the mediation of the systemic actions of opioids are not well established. In this study, we made use of naltrexone methobromide, a quaternary analog of naltrexone, to separate the central and peripheral components of the slowing action of morphine on gastrointestinal transit(More)