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Related RNA polymerases (RNAPs) carry out cellular gene transcription in all three kingdoms of life. The universal conservation of the transcription machinery extends to a single RNAP-associated factor, Spt5 (or NusG in bacteria), which renders RNAP processive and may have arisen early to permit evolution of long genes. Spt5 associates with Spt4 to form the(More)
Here we report the crystal structure of the human mitochondrial RNA polymerase (mtRNAP) transcription elongation complex, determined at 2.65-Å resolution. The structure reveals a 9-bp hybrid formed between the DNA template and the RNA transcript and one turn of DNA both upstream and downstream of the hybrid. Comparisons with the distantly related RNA(More)
  • Robert E Slavin, Alan Cheung, Cynthia Groff, Cynthia Lake
  • 2008
S tudents who enter high school with poor literacy skills face long odds against graduating and going on to postsecondary education or satisfying careers. Joftus and Maddox-Dolan (2003) reported that in the United States, roughly 6 million secondary students read far below grade level and that approximately 3,000 students drop out of U.S. high schools every(More)
Depth and topography directly and indirectly influence most ocean environmental conditions, including light penetration and photosynthesis, sedimentation, current movements and stratification, and thus temperature and oxygen gradients. These parameters are thus likely to influence species distribution patterns and productivity in the oceans. They may be(More)
OBJECTIVES To develop an automated risk prediction model to identify elderly patients at high risk of emergency admission to medical wards within 28 days following an index hospital visit. METHODS A retrospective data analysis of 41 hospitals and 48 specialist outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. The study subjects were elderly patients aged 65 years or(More)
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