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Related RNA polymerases (RNAPs) carry out cellular gene transcription in all three kingdoms of life. The universal conservation of the transcription machinery extends to a single RNAP-associated factor, Spt5 (or NusG in bacteria), which renders RNAP processive and may have arisen early to permit evolution of long genes. Spt5 associates with Spt4 to form the(More)
Transcription of ribosomal RNA by RNA polymerase (Pol) I initiates ribosome biogenesis and regulates eukaryotic cell growth. The crystal structure of Pol I from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 2.8 Å resolution reveals all 14 subunits of the 590-kilodalton enzyme, and shows differences to Pol II. An 'expander' element occupies the DNA template site and(More)
The trigger loop (TL) forms a conserved element in the RNA polymerase active centre that functions in the elongation phase of transcription. Here, we show that the TL also functions in transcription initiation and termination. Using recombinant variants of RNA polymerase from Pyrococcus furiosus and a reconstituted transcription system, we demonstrate that(More)
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