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Vertebrate circadian rhythms are organized by the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Despite its physiological importance, SCN development is poorly understood. Here, we show that Lim homeodomain transcription factor 1 (Lhx1) is essential for terminal differentiation and function of the SCN. Deletion of Lhx1 in the developing SCN results in loss of(More)
Rapid and stable control of pupil size in response to light is critical for vision, but the neural coding mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigated the neural basis of pupil control by monitoring pupil size across time while manipulating each photoreceptor input or neurotransmitter output of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells(More)
Mutations in the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP, encoded by RLBP1) can lead to severe cone photoreceptor-mediated vision loss in patients. It is not known how CRALBP supports cone function or how altered CRALBP leads to cone dysfunction. Here, we determined that deletion of Rlbp1 in mice impairs the retinal visual cycle. Mice lacking CRALBP(More)
In mammals, a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) expresses the photopigment melanopsin, which renders them intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs). These ipRGCs mediate various non-image-forming visual functions such as circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex (PLR). Melanopsin phototransduction begins with activation of a heterotrimeric(More)
A subset of retinal ganglion cells is intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs) and contributes directly to the pupillary light reflex and circadian photoentrainment under bright-light conditions. ipRGCs are also indirectly activated by light through cellular circuits initiated in rods and cones. A mammalian homologue (RdgB2) of a phosphoinositide(More)
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin and mediate several non-image-forming visual functions, including circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex (PLR). ipRGCs act as autonomous photoreceptors via the intrinsic melanopsin-based phototransduction pathway and as a relay for rod/cone(More)
The belly spot and tail (Bst+/−) mouse phenotype is caused by mutations of the ribosomal protein L24 (Rpl24). Among various phenotypes in Bst+/− mice, the most interesting are its retinal abnormalities, consisting of delayed closure of choroid fissures, decreased ganglion cells and subretinal vascularization. We further characterized the Bst+/− mouse and(More)
The belly spot and tail (Bst(+/-)) mouse phenotype is caused by mutations of the ribosomal protein L24 (Rpl24). Among various phenotypes in Bst(+/-) mice, the most interesting are its retinal abnormalities, consisting of delayed closure of choroid fissures, decreased ganglion cells and subretinal vascularization. We further characterized the Bst(+/-) mouse(More)
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