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Variation is a ubiquitous feature of speech. Listeners must take into account context-induced variation to recover the interlocutor's intended message. When listeners fail to normalize for context-induced variation properly, deviant percepts become seeds for new perceptual and production norms. In question is how deviant percepts accumulate in a systematic(More)
Cross-linguistically, vowel duration is often found to be inversely related to the approximate average f 0 ; all else being equal, vowels on low tones are longer than those on high tones, while vowels on rising tones are longer than those on falling tones. This type of interplay between tonal contrasts and duration is commonly reflected in the world's(More)
In this paper we address the long-standing issue of how prosodic patterns are linked to meanings. We explore the idea that prosodically realized communicative functions, such as focus and sentence modality, are analogous to lexical morphemes, the smallest sound units that carry meaning. We considered evidence of a four-way similarity between lexical(More)
Perceptual compensation for coarticulation (PCCA) refers to listener responses consistent with perceptual reduction of the acoustic effects of the coarticulatory context on a target sound. The robustness of PCCA across individuals and across tasks have not been studied together previously. This study reports the results of two experiments designed to(More)
Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between(More)