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Fractalkine is a unique chemokine reported to be constitutively expressed by neurons. Its only receptor, CX3CR1, is expressed by microglia. Little is known about the expression of fractalkine and CX3CR1 in spinal cord. Given that peripheral nerve inflammation and/or injury gives rise to neuropathic pain, and neuropathic pain may be partially mediated by(More)
Recent evidence suggests that spinal cord glia can contribute to enhanced nociceptive responses. However, the signals that cause glial activation are unknown. Fractalkine (CX3C ligand-1; CX3CL1) is a unique chemokine expressed on the extracellular surface of spinal neurons and spinal sensory afferents. In the dorsal spinal cord, fractalkine receptors are(More)
Indiplon (NBI 34060; N-methyl-N-[3-[3-(2-thienylcarbonyl)-pyrazolo[1,5-alpha]pyrimidin-7-yl]phenyl]acetamide), a novel pyrazolopyrimidine and high-affinity allosteric potentiator of GABA(A) receptor function, was profiled for its effects in rodents after oral administration. In mice, indiplon inhibited locomotor activity (ED(50) = 2.7 mg/kg p.o.) at doses(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is one of the principle components of the stress response. The physiological effects of CRF are mediated by two receptor subtypes, CRF(1) and CRF(2). Recent data obtained with the selective CRF(2) antagonist antisauvagine-30 (ASV-30) has begun to suggest that both CRF receptor subtypes may play a role in stress-related(More)
Although there is considerable information regarding the role of brain CRF in energy balance, relatively little is known about the role of urocortin (UCN), which is an equally potent anorexic agent. Therefore, the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of UCN (0.01-1 nmol/day) on food intake and body weight were assessed over a period of 13(More)
Glutamate- and GABA-releasing neurons form the basis for neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The co-ordination of these excitatory and inhibitory systems, together with intrinsic voltage-gated ion channels and G-protein-coupled receptor modulation, provides the diverse neuronal firing patterns, network activity and synaptic(More)
We compared the in vivo efficacy of two selective CRF2 agonists, mouse urocortin II (mUcn II) and human urocortin III (hUcn III), using food intake, anxious behavior, or ACTH release in CD-1 or Balb/c mice as indices of biological stress responses. All three peptides produced anorexia (Minimal Effective Dose (M.E.D.) for CRF and mUcn II = 0.03 nmol; M.E.D.(More)
The adenosine kinase inhibitor, 5'-deoxyiodotubercidin (5dITU), was examined in a rat focal stoke model with temporary (105 min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by a 24 h recovery period. Inhibition of this adenosine metabolizing enzyme indirectly enhances the actions of endogenous adenosine without inducing cardiovascular side effects.(More)
Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) maintain the balance between pathological and physiological conditions by limiting the extracellular concentration of glutamate within the CNS and thus preventing excitotoxic injury. The loss of EAAT2 has been associated with the development of neurological diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It has(More)
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) was tested as an antagonist of the neurotoxic and epileptogenic effects of the metabolically related brain constituent quinolinic acid (QUIN). In the rat striatum, KYNA blocked the neurotoxic effects of QUIN in preference to those of other excitotoxins. In the hippocampus, KYNA antagonized both the neurodegeneration and seizures caused(More)