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The authors review the literature examining the validity and significance of cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Findings from animal laboratory research are briefly reviewed, and human laboratory and clinical studies are surveyed in more detail. Converging evidence from basic laboratory and clinical studies indicates that a withdrawal syndrome reliably follows(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a behavioral treatment program for achieving initial cocaine abstinence in individuals enrolled in outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence. METHOD Thirteen consecutively admitted outpatients were offered behavioral treatment consisting of contingency management procedures and the community(More)
AIMS The clinical relevance of marijuana withdrawal has not been established. This study is the first to document the incidence and severity of perceived marijuana withdrawal symptoms in a clinical sample of marijuana-dependent adults. MEASUREMENTS Fifty-four people seeking outpatient treatment for marijuana dependence completed a 22-item Marijuana(More)
Sixty individuals seeking outpatient treatment for marijuana dependence were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: motivational enhancement (M), M plus behavioral coping skills therapy (MBT), or MBT plus voucher-based incentives (MBTV). In the voucher-based incentive program, participants earned vouchers exchangeable for retail items contingent on them(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess whether incentives improved treatment outcome in ambulatory cocaine-dependent patients. METHOD Forty cocaine-dependent adults were randomly assigned to behavioral treatment with or without an added incentive program. The behavioral treatment was based on the Community Reinforcement Approach and was provided to both groups. Subjects in(More)
Since DSM-IV was published in 1994, its approach to substance use disorders has come under scrutiny. Strengths were identified (notably, reliability and validity of dependence), but concerns have also arisen. The DSM-5 Substance-Related Disorders Work Group considered these issues and recommended revisions for DSM-5. General concerns included whether to(More)
AIMS   Cannabis and tobacco use and misuse frequently co-occur. This review examines the epidemiological evidence supporting the life-time co-occurrence of cannabis and tobacco use and outlines the mechanisms that link these drugs to each other. Mechanisms include (i) shared genetic factors; (ii) shared environmental influences, including (iii) route of(More)
BACKGROUND Although withdrawal symptoms are commonly reported by persons seeking treatment for marijuana dependence, the validity and clinical significance of a marijuana withdrawal syndrome has not been established. This controlled outpatient study examined the reliability and specificity of the abstinence effects that occur when daily marijuana users(More)
A cannabis withdrawal syndrome has been characterized, but its clinical significance remains uncertain. One method of assessing the significance of cannabis withdrawal is to compare it directly to an established withdrawal syndrome. The present study was a within-subject comparison of cannabis, tobacco, and combined cannabis and tobacco withdrawal among(More)
This naturalistic telephone survey study compared perceptions of withdrawal severity in 67 daily cannabis users and 54 daily tobacco cigarette smokers who made quit attempts during the prior 30 days. A Withdrawal Symptom Checklist assessed the severity of abstinence symptoms and a Likert scale assessed perceived relations between abstinence symptoms and(More)