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The authors review the literature examining the validity and significance of cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Findings from animal laboratory research are briefly reviewed, and human laboratory and clinical studies are surveyed in more detail. Converging evidence from basic laboratory and clinical studies indicates that a withdrawal syndrome reliably follows(More)
AIMS   Cannabis and tobacco use and misuse frequently co-occur. This review examines the epidemiological evidence supporting the life-time co-occurrence of cannabis and tobacco use and outlines the mechanisms that link these drugs to each other. Mechanisms include (i) shared genetic factors; (ii) shared environmental influences, including (iii) route of(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess whether incentives improved treatment outcome in ambulatory cocaine-dependent patients. METHOD Forty cocaine-dependent adults were randomly assigned to behavioral treatment with or without an added incentive program. The behavioral treatment was based on the Community Reinforcement Approach and was provided to both groups. Subjects in(More)
Sixty individuals seeking outpatient treatment for marijuana dependence were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: motivational enhancement (M), M plus behavioral coping skills therapy (MBT), or MBT plus voucher-based incentives (MBTV). In the voucher-based incentive program, participants earned vouchers exchangeable for retail items contingent on them(More)
Since DSM-IV was published in 1994, its approach to substance use disorders has come under scrutiny. Strengths were identified (notably, reliability and validity of dependence), but concerns have also arisen. The DSM-5 Substance-Related Disorders Work Group considered these issues and recommended revisions for DSM-5. General concerns included whether to(More)
AIMS The clinical relevance of marijuana withdrawal has not been established. This study is the first to document the incidence and severity of perceived marijuana withdrawal symptoms in a clinical sample of marijuana-dependent adults. MEASUREMENTS Fifty-four people seeking outpatient treatment for marijuana dependence completed a 22-item Marijuana(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors compared the efficacy of a multicomponent behavioral treatment and drug abuse counseling for cocaine-dependent individuals. METHOD The 38 patients were enrolled in outpatient treatment and were randomly assigned to the two treatments. Counseling in the behavioral treatment was based on the community reinforcement approach, while the(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The demand for treatment for cannabis dependence has grown dramatically. The majority of the people who enter the treatment have difficulty in achieving and maintaining abstinence from cannabis. Understanding the impact of cannabis withdrawal syndrome on quit attempts is of obvious importance. Cannabis, however, has long been considered a(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a behavioral treatment program for achieving initial cocaine abstinence in individuals enrolled in outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence. METHOD Thirteen consecutively admitted outpatients were offered behavioral treatment consisting of contingency management procedures and the community(More)
Nicotine and caffeine use in 87 cocaine-dependent persons seeking treatment at an outpatient clinic were compared to use of those substances in a matched general population sample (n = 78). The prevalence of cigarette smoking was significantly greater in the cocaine-dependent sample (75% vs. 22%). Within the cocaine-dependent sample, smokers were younger,(More)