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AIMS The clinical relevance of marijuana withdrawal has not been established. This study is the first to document the incidence and severity of perceived marijuana withdrawal symptoms in a clinical sample of marijuana-dependent adults. MEASUREMENTS Fifty-four people seeking outpatient treatment for marijuana dependence completed a 22-item Marijuana(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess whether incentives improved treatment outcome in ambulatory cocaine-dependent patients. METHOD Forty cocaine-dependent adults were randomly assigned to behavioral treatment with or without an added incentive program. The behavioral treatment was based on the Community Reinforcement Approach and was provided to both groups. Subjects in(More)
Since DSM-IV was published in 1994, its approach to substance use disorders has come under scrutiny. Strengths were identified (notably, reliability and validity of dependence), but concerns have also arisen. The DSM-5 Substance-Related Disorders Work Group considered these issues and recommended revisions for DSM-5. General concerns included whether to(More)
The authors review the literature examining the validity and significance of cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Findings from animal laboratory research are briefly reviewed, and human laboratory and clinical studies are surveyed in more detail. Converging evidence from basic laboratory and clinical studies indicates that a withdrawal syndrome reliably follows(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a behavioral treatment program for achieving initial cocaine abstinence in individuals enrolled in outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence. METHOD Thirteen consecutively admitted outpatients were offered behavioral treatment consisting of contingency management procedures and the community(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors compared the efficacy of a multicomponent behavioral treatment and drug abuse counseling for cocaine-dependent individuals. METHOD The 38 patients were enrolled in outpatient treatment and were randomly assigned to the two treatments. Counseling in the behavioral treatment was based on the community reinforcement approach, while the(More)
Withdrawal symptoms following cessation of heavy cannabis (marijuana) use have been reported, yet their time course and clinical importance have not been established. A 50-day outpatient study assessed 18 marijuana users during a 5-day smoking-as-usual phase followed by a 45-day abstinence phase. Parallel assessment of 12 ex-users was obtained. A withdrawal(More)
BACKGROUND Although withdrawal symptoms are commonly reported by persons seeking treatment for marijuana dependence, the validity and clinical significance of a marijuana withdrawal syndrome has not been established. This controlled outpatient study examined the reliability and specificity of the abstinence effects that occur when daily marijuana users(More)
This naturalistic telephone survey study compared perceptions of withdrawal severity in 67 daily cannabis users and 54 daily tobacco cigarette smokers who made quit attempts during the prior 30 days. A Withdrawal Symptom Checklist assessed the severity of abstinence symptoms and a Likert scale assessed perceived relations between abstinence symptoms and(More)
AIMS   Cannabis and tobacco use and misuse frequently co-occur. This review examines the epidemiological evidence supporting the life-time co-occurrence of cannabis and tobacco use and outlines the mechanisms that link these drugs to each other. Mechanisms include (i) shared genetic factors; (ii) shared environmental influences, including (iii) route of(More)