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AIMS In studying aetiological interactions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors in normal and abnormal developments of the dentition, methods of measurement have often been limited to maximum mesio-distal and bucco-lingual crown diameters, obtained with hand-held calipers. While this approach has led to many important findings, there are(More)
Dental anomalies are caused by complex interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors during the long process of dental development. This process is multifactorial, multilevel, multidimensional and progressive over time. In this paper the evidence from animal models and from human studies is integrated to outline the current position and(More)
This paper reviews the concept of morphogenetic fields within the dentition that was first proposed by Butler (Butler PM. Studies of the mammalian dentition. Differentiation of the post-canine dentition. Proc Zool Soc Lond B 1939;109:1-36), then adapted for the human dentition by Dahlberg (Dahlberg AA. The changing dentition of man. J Am Dent Assoc(More)
Utilising data derived from twins and their families, different approaches can be applied to study genetic and environmental influences on human dental variation. The different methods have advantages and limitations and special features of the twinning process are important to consider. Model-fitting approaches have shown that different combinations of(More)
Tooth dimensions were compared between index patients with severe hypodontia (six or more congenitally missing teeth), their relatives with a full complement of teeth, and a control group. The groups consisted of 12 index cases (seven females and five males), 21 relatives without hypodontia (13 females and eight males), and a control group of 10 males and(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the reproducibility of a mobile non-contact camera-based digital imaging system (DIS) for measuring tooth colour under in vitro and in vivo conditions. METHODS One in vitro and two in vivo studies were performed using a mobile non-contact camera-based digital imaging system. In vitro study: two operators used the DIS to image 10 dry(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between the shape of mandibular incisor crowns and crowding. Study models of 50 untreated white subjects (25 men and 25 women) with varying degrees of crowding were studied. The lower incisors were sectioned and imaged at the contact point and midpoint levels, and the mesiodistal width was measured.(More)
In a recent study, the ideas of Procrustes analysis were introduced to the study of tooth shape for teeth represented as configurations of 'landmarks' from digital images. This study aimed to establish how well the method could be expected to perform (in its standard form) when used on surfaces from a variety of tooth types and, in particular, how much(More)
Mutations in human and in mouse orthologous genes Amelx and Enam result in a diverse range of enamel defects. In this study we aimed to investigate the phenotype-genotype correlation between the mutants and the wild-type controls in mouse models of amelogenesis imperfecta using novel measurement approaches. Ten hemi-mandibles and incisors were dissected(More)
Two metaphors are presented to highlight concepts that could lead to a paradigm shift in dental studies of twins. The first, derived from the Song of Solomon in the Bible, refers to teeth as being twins. This viewpoint emphasises that each tooth should be viewed as a paired structure, not only with its antimere (within the same arch) but also with its(More)