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CONTEXT Previous studies have reported that the number and distribution of trauma centers are uneven across states, suggesting large differences in access to trauma center care. OBJECTIVE To estimate the proportion of US residents having access to trauma centers within 45 and 60 minutes. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional study using data from 2(More)
In this article, we address the problem of allocating an additional cell tower (or a set of towers) to an existing cellular network, maximizing the call completion probability. Our approach is derived from the adaptive spatial sampling problem using kriging, capitalizing on spatial correlation between cell phone signal strength data points and accounting(More)
BACKGROUND In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released a revised Field Triage Decision Scheme. It is unknown how this modified scheme will affect the number of patients identified by emergency medical services (EMS) for transport to a trauma center. OBJECTIVES To determine the change in the number of patients transported by EMS(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the accuracy of emergency medical services (EMS) provider assessments of motor vehicle damage when compared with measurements made by a professional crash reconstructionist. METHODS EMS providers caring for adult patients injured during a motor vehicle crash and transported to the regional trauma center in a midsized community were(More)
The location of base stations (BS) and the allocation of channels are of paramount importance for the performance of cellular radio networks. Also cellular service providers are now being driven by the goal to enhance performance, particularly as it relates to the receipt and transmission of emergency crash notification messages generated by automobile(More)
The use of an automated collision notification (ACN) device in vehicles can greatly reduce the time between crash occurrence and notification of emergency medical services (EMSs). Most ACN devices rely on cellular technology to report important crash information to the proper authorities. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of the(More)
Foraging, either solitarily or collectively, is a necessary behavior for survival that is demonstrated by many organisms. Foraging can be collectively optimized by utilizing communication between the organisms. Examples of such communication range from high level strategic foraging by animal groups to rudimentary signaling among unicellular organisms. Here(More)
In this paper, a tour-based multi-objective logistics model for optimized scheduling of the delivery of critical items in a disaster relief operation is proposed. Our model considers multi-items, multi-vehicles, multi-periods, and a split delivery scenario in a disaster. Two heuristic approaches are introduced to solve the logistics problem. In the first(More)
BACKGROUND It is well documented that seat belt usage effectively reduces the severity of motor vehicle occupant injuries and fatalities in roadway crashes. This research examines how the presence of an unrestrained rear-seat passenger seated directly behind an airbag and/or belt-restrained driver affects the driver's risk of injury in two different(More)