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In a regression study of conversational speech, we show that frequency, contextual predictability and repetition have separate contributions to word duration, despite their substantial correlations. Moreover, content-and function-word durations are affected differently by their frequency and predictability. Content words are shorter when more frequent, and(More)
Function words, especially frequently occurring ones such as (the, that, and, and of), vary widely in pronunciation. Understanding this variation is essential both for cognitive modeling of lexical production and for computer speech recognition and synthesis. This study investigates which factors affect the forms of function words, especially whether they(More)
The causes of pronunciation reduction in 8458 occurrences of ten frequent English function words in a four-hour sample from conversations from the Switchboard corpus were examined. Using ordinary linear and logistic regression models, we examined the length of the words, the form of their vowel (basic, full, or reduced), and final obstruent deletion. For(More)
We investigate how the probability of a word affects its pronunciation. We examined 5618 tokens of the 10 most frequent (function) words in Switchboard: I, and, the, that, a, you, to, of, it, and in, and 2042 tokens of content words whose lexical form ends in a t or d. Our observations were drawn from the phonetically hand-transcribed subset [1] of the(More)
The pronunciation of a word can vary widely, and many factors are known to affect this variation. This paper focuses on the role of predictability on word duration. Previous research has suggested that more frequent words are shorter, as are words which are more predictable from neighboring words. This research has tended to focus only on extremely high(More)
0 Introduction Word frequency and word predictability have both been proposed in the literature as explanations for word shortening or reduction. Traditionally, these two explanations have been modeled separately. Frequency models focus on the fact that words with high use frequency are shortened compared to low frequency words, whether in the lexicon (Zipf(More)
This study examines the role of several non–phonetic factors in the reduction of ten frequent English function words (I, and, in the phonetically-transcribed portion of the Switchboard corpus of spontaneous telephone conversations. Using ordinary linear and logistic regression models, we examined the length of the words and whether their vowels were full or(More)