Alan B. Cady

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The cytokines interleukin 1 (IL 1) and interferon (IFN) are immune response modifiers that are also pyrogenic and somnogenic. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (cachectin) is another pyrogenic monocyte product whose production can be elicited by somnogenic agents such as endotoxin. Human recombinant TNF (rTNF), therefore, was assayed for somnogenic activity.(More)
Promoting generalist predators in agriculture via habitat manipulation has gained much interest in biocontrol research. Straw shelters have been used by Chinese farmers for .2,000 yr to provide temporary spider refugia during cyclic farming disturbances. This method, however, has not been systematically investigated on larger scales in western-style(More)
Infection of injury results in several systemic and central reactions termed the acute phase response (APR). Substantial evidence suggests that cytokines induced by microbes initiate the APR. We compared the APR induced in rabbits by a model bacterial stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), to that induced by a model viral stimulus,(More)
While many of the molecular events in viral replication are well studied, the molecular mechanisms by which viral infections trigger such constitutional symptoms as fever and 'malaise' are unknown. The hypothesis that these viral constitutional symptoms can be triggered by the toxic action of dsRNA associated with viral replication was investigated. Total(More)
Mutualistic symbionts are widespread in plants and may have strong, bottom-up influences on community structure. Here we show that a grass-endophyte mutualism shifts the composition of a generalist predator assemblage. In replicated, successional fields we manipulated endophyte infection by Neotyphodium coenophialum in a dominant, non-native plant (Lolium(More)
The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether (1) vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) produces effects on rabbit sleep similar to those reported for rats and cats; (2) peptide histidine methionine (PHM), a peptide closely related to VIP, mimics the sleep effects of VIP; and (3) pituitary prolactin (PRL), a pituitary hormone that has a(More)
Drowsiness and fever are common symptoms of many viral diseases. It has been postulated that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) produced during viral replication may cause these symptoms by direct toxic effects or by inducing interferon (IFN) or other cytokine production. Polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C), a pyrogenic and IFN-inducing synthetic(More)
Bacterial infections and various immune response modifiers, including endotoxin and its lipid A moiety, alter sleep duration. The purpose of this study is to amplify our understanding of lipid A structure-somnogenic-pyrogenic activity relationships. Four synthetic disaccharide analogs of lipid A (LA-15-PP, LA-15-PH, LA-16-PH, and LA-18-PP) and a(More)
All the sleep-promoting substances currently identified also have other biological activities. Despite years of effort, a single specific central nervous system sleep center has not been described. These observations led us to propose a biochemical model of a sleep activational system in which the effects of several sleep factors are integrated into a(More)
Previously, it was suggested that a hypothalamic mechanism links somatotropin [growth hormone (GH)] secretion to sleep regulation, and this may explain the temporal correlation between GH release and nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) on sleep onset. The purpose of these experiments was to study whether growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), a hypothalamic(More)