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BRCA1 and BRCA2 are important for DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination, and mutations in these genes predispose to breast and other cancers. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is an enzyme involved in base excision repair, a key pathway in the repair of DNA single-strand breaks. We show here that BRCA1 or BRCA2 dysfunction unexpectedly(More)
BACKGROUND The inhibition of poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a potential synthetic lethal therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancers with specific DNA-repair defects, including those arising in carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. We conducted a clinical evaluation in humans of olaparib (AZD2281), a novel, potent,(More)
No more than approximately 30% of hereditary breast cancer has been accounted for by mutations in known genes. Most of these genes, such as BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, CHEK2, ATM, and FANCJ/BRIP1, function in DNA repair, raising the possibility that germ line mutations in other genes that contribute to this process also predispose to breast cancer. Given its close(More)
The role of estrogen in promoting mammary stem cell proliferation remains controversial. It is unclear if estrogen receptor (ER)-expressing cells have stem/progenitor activity themselves or if they act in a paracrine fashion to stimulate stem cell proliferation. We have used flow cytometry to prospectively isolate mouse mammary ER-expressing epithelial(More)
Breast cancer is thought to arise in mammary epithelial stem cells. There is, therefore, a large amount of interest in identifying these cells. The breast is a complex tissue consisting of two epithelial layers (an outer myoepithelial/basal layer and an inner luminal epithelial layer) as well as a large non-epithelial component (fibroblasts, endothelial(More)
Germline mutations in the BRCA1, BRCA2 and Fanconi anaemia genes confer cancer susceptibility, and the proteins encoded by these genes have distinct functions in related DNA-repair processes. Emerging evidence indicates that these processes are disrupted by numerous mechanisms in sporadic cancers. Collectively, there are properties that define 'BRCAness' -(More)
Familial cylindromatosis is an autosomal dominant predisposition to tumours of skin appendages called cylindromas. Familial cylindromatosis is caused by mutations in a gene encoding the CYLD protein of previously unknown function. Here we show that CYLD is a deubiquitinating enzyme that negatively regulates activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB(More)
BACKGROUND Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease, but current treatments are not based on molecular stratification. We hypothesized that metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancers with DNA-repair defects would respond to poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition with olaparib. METHODS We conducted a phase 2 trial in(More)
Deficiency in either of the breast cancer susceptibility proteins BRCA1 or BRCA2 induces profound cellular sensitivity to the inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity. We hypothesized that the critical role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the repair of double-strand breaks by homologous recombination (HR) was the underlying reason for this(More)