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Bluetongue virus is a large and structurally complex virus composed of three concentric capsid layers that surround 10 segments of a double-stranded RNA genome. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the particles without the outer capsid layer has provided atomic structural details of VP3 and VP7, which form the inner two layers. However, limited structural(More)
The rhesus monkey intrinsic immunity factor TRIM5alpha(rh) recognizes incoming capsids from a variety of retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), and inhibits the accumulation of viral reverse transcripts. However, direct interactions between restricting TRIM5alpha proteins and retroviral(More)
An intact B-box 2 domain is essential for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5alpha. We modeled the structure of the B-box 2 domain of TRIM5alpha based on the existing three-dimensional structure of the B-box 2 domain of human TRIM29. Using this model, we altered the residues predicted to be exposed on the surface of this globular structure. Most of the(More)
BACKGROUND Bluetongue virus (BTV) particles consist of seven structural proteins that are organized into two capsids. In addition, BTV also encodes three non-structural (NS) proteins of which protein 2 (NS2) is the RNA binding protein and is also the major component of virus encoded inclusion bodies (VIBs), which are believed to be virus assembly sites. To(More)
The VP6 protein of bluetongue virus possesses a number of activities, including nucleoside triphosphatase, RNA binding, and helicase activity (N. Stauber, J. Martinez-Costas, G. Sutton, K. Monastyrskaya, and P. Roy, J. Virol. 71:7220-7226, 1997). Although the enzymatic functions of the protein have been documented, a detailed structure and function study(More)
Recent studies have linked necrotic cell death and proteolysis of inflammatory proteins to the adaptive immune response mediated by the lysosome-destabilizing adjuvants, alum and Leu-Leu-OMe (LLOMe). However, the mechanism by which lysosome-destabilizing agents trigger necrosis and proteolysis of inflammatory proteins is poorly understood. The proteasome is(More)
BACKGROUND Like all tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins, the retroviral restriction factor TRIM5α consists of RING, B-box 2 and coiled-coil domains, with a C-terminal B30.2(SPRY) domain. Although structures have been determined for some individual TRIM domains, the structure of an intact TRIM protein is unknown. RESULTS Here, we express and characterize a(More)
Three imipenem-resistant mutants were obtained from a clinical isolate (C152) of Shigella dysenteriae by selection with increasing concentrations of imipenem. Resistance to imipenem was associated with resistance to several other beta-lactam antibiotics. The penicillin-binding protein (PBP) patterns of the resistant and the wild-type strains were(More)
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