Learn More
We present the results of the Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach 2 (APHEA2) project on short-term effects of ambient particles on mortality with emphasis on effect modification. We used daily measurements for particulate matter less than 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and/or black smoke from 29 European cities. We considered confounding(More)
OBJECTIVES Little is known about the potential health effects of the coarse fraction of ambient particles. The aim of this study is to estimate the links between fine (PM(2.5)) and coarse particle (PM(2.5-10)) levels and cardiorespiratory hospitalisations in six French cities during 2000-2003. METHODS Data on the daily numbers of hospitalisations for(More)
Although the association between particulate matter and mortality or morbidity is generally accepted, controversy remains about the importance of the association. If it is due solely to the deaths of frail individuals, which are brought forward by only a brief period of time, the public health implications of the association are fewer than if there is an(More)
BACKGROUND In July 2006, a lasting and severe heat wave occurred in Western Europe. Since the 2003 heat wave, several preventive measures and an alert system aiming at reducing the risks related to high temperatures have been set up in France by the health authorities and institutions. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of those measures, the observed(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To review the issues and methodologies in epidemiologic time series studies of daily counts of mortality and hospital admissions and illustrate some of the methodologies. DESIGN This is a review paper with an example drawn from hospital admissions of the elderly in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. MAIN RESULTS The central issue is control for(More)
INTRODUCTION This report provides the methodology and findings from the project: Air Pollution and Health: a European and North American Approach (APHENA). The principal purpose of the project was to provide an understanding of the degree of consistency among findings of multicity time-series studies on the effects of air pollution on mortality and(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have investigated the independent health effects of different size fractions of particulate matter (PM) in multiple locations, especially in Europe. OBJECTIVES We estimated the short-term effects of PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and between 2.5 and 10 μm (PM2.5-10) on all-cause, cardiovascular, and(More)
Short-term changes in ambient particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 10 micro m (PM10) have been associated with short-term fluctuations in mortality or morbidity in many studies. In this study, we tested whether those deaths are just advanced by a few days or weeks using a multicity hierarchical modeling approach for all-cause, respiratory, and(More)
France experienced a record-breaking heat wave between 2 and 15 August 2003. All the French regions were affected by this heat wave, which resulted in an excess of 14 800 deaths between 1 and 20 August. The increase in the number of excess deaths followed the same pattern as the increase in temperatures. No deviance from the normal death rate was observed(More)
In 2003, a Heat Health Watch Warning System was developed in France to anticipate heat waves that may result in a large excess of mortality. The system was developed on the basis of a retrospective analysis of mortality and meteorological data in fourteen pilot cities. Several meteorological indicators were tested in relation to levels of excess mortality.(More)