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Hyponatraemia, defined as a serum sodium concentration <135 mmol/L, is the most common disorder of body fluid and electrolyte balance encountered in clinical practice. Hyponatraemia is present in 15–20 % of emergency admissions to hospital and occurs in up to 20 % of critically ill patients. Symptomatology may vary from subtle to severe or even life(More)
The effects of satavaptan (SR121463B), a novel long-acting orally active vasopressin V(2)-receptor antagonist, were investigated in patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). In the first part of this randomized, double-blind study, 34 patients first were treated with satavaptan (versus placebo) for up to 5 d and(More)
Patients with hyponatremia are exposed to major neurological complications. On the one hand hyponatremia itself produces brain edema, increased intracranial pressure which potentially leads to subsequent neuropathological sequelae or death. On the other hand excessive correction could be followed by development of brain demyelinating lesions (central(More)
INTRODUCTION Hyponatremia in the intensive care unit (ICU) is most commonly related to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Fluid restriction is difficult to apply in these patients. We wanted to report the treatment of hyponatremia with urea in these patients. METHODS Two groups of patients are reported. The first one is represented(More)
Extrarenal mechanisms are important in the defense against hyperkalemia. During a potassium load, cellular uptake is essential to avoid severe hyperkalemia. Liver and muscles represent the major buffering system, partially mediated by insulin, in the distribution of potassium between intracellular and extracellular fluids. To study the potential role of the(More)
We analyzed the serum anion gap (AG = sodium plus potassium minus chloride plus bicarbonate, N = 11-21 mEq/l), serum uric acid and urea concentrations in hyponatremia of various origins. We found that characteristic chemical patterns emerged in association with different hypotonic states: Low uric acid concentration was typically observed in the SIADH and(More)
In hyponatremia related to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), hypouricemia is explained primarily by the high uric acid clearance rate that results from the decrease in tubular uric acid reabsorption. This modification of tubular handling of uric acid is considered to be induced by the increase in the "effective vascular volume". This(More)
Increments in serum ferritin levels in adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) were reported to be higher than one could expect for a simple inflammatory state. When we analyzed the scores of 40 patients with various severe inflammatory diseases aside from AOSD, we recorded no serum ferritin values higher than 3,300 ng/ml (N less than 200 ng/ml). In 3 of 10(More)
Brain myelinolysis occurs after correction of chronic hyponatremia in rats when the magnitude of increase in serum sodium (delta SNa) exceeds 20 to 25 mEq/liter/24 hr (the critical threshold for brain). We tested the hypothesis that after a sustained excessive correction, brain lesions (BL) could be prevented by subsequently decreasing the serum sodium(More)
Arginine-vasopressin is a hormone that plays an important part in circulatory and water homoeostasis. The three arginine-vasopressin-receptor subtypes--V1a, V1b, and V2--all belong to the large rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptor family. The vaptans are orally and intravenously active non-peptide vasopressin receptor antagonists that are in(More)