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We used a novel uniaxial stretching rheometer to measure the creep function J(t) of an isolated living cell. We show, for the first time at the scale of the whole cell, that J(t) behaves as a power-law J(t) = At(alpha). For N = 43 mice myoblasts (C2-7), we find alpha = 0.24 +/- 0.01 and A = (2.4 +/- 0.3) 10(-3) Pa(-1) s(-alpha). Using Laplace Transforms, we(More)
Living cells exhibit an important out-of-equilibrium mechanical activity, mainly due to the forces generated by molecular motors. These motor proteins, acting individually or collectively on the cytoskeleton, contribute to the violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in living systems. In this work we probe the cytoskeletal out-of-equilibrium(More)
Mechanical cell-substrate interactions affect many cellular functions such as spreading, migration, and even differentiation. These interactions can be studied by incorporating micro- and nanotechnology-related tools. The design of substrates based on these technologies offers new possibilities to probe the cellular responses to changes in their physical(More)
Holographic optical tweezers (HOTs) enable the manipulation of multiple traps independently in three dimensions in real time. Application of this technique to force measurements requires calibration of trap stiffness and its position dependence. Here, we determine the trap stiffness of HOTs as they are steered in two dimensions. To do this, we trap a single(More)
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