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The actin-ADP-ribosylating binary Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin consists of two individual proteins, the binding/translocation component C2II and the enzyme component C2I. To elicit its cytotoxic action, C2II binds to a receptor on the cell surface and mediates cell entry of C2I via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Here we report that binding of C2II to the(More)
Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are popular models of cell membranes with potential biotechnological applications, yet the mechanism of SLB formation is only partially understood. In this study, the adsorption and subsequent conformational changes of sonicated unilamellar vesicles on silica supports were investigated by quartz crystal microbalance with(More)
Hydrophobins self assemble into amphipathic films at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces. These proteins are involved in a broad range of processes in fungal development. We have studied the conformational changes that accompany the self-assembly of the hydrophobin SC3 with polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, attenuated total(More)
The V-type Na(+)-ATPase of the thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium Caloramator fervidus was purified to homogeneity. The subunit compositions of the catalytic V(1) and membrane-embedded V(0) parts were determined and the structure of the enzyme complex was studied by electron microscopy. The V(1) headpiece consists of seven subunits present in one to three(More)
F- and V-type ATPases are central enzymes in energy metabolism that couple synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP to the translocation of H+ or Na+ across biological membranes. They consist of a soluble headpiece that contains the catalytic sites and an integral membrane-bound part that conducts the ion flow. Energy coupling is thought to occur through the physical(More)
As part of an ongoing study to determine the true habitat of Bacillus species, we report here the isolation and characterisation of Bacillus subtilis from the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Strains were obtained from ileum biopsies as well as from faecal samples and their biotypes defined. 16S rRNA analysis revealed that most isolates of B. subtilis(More)
Extracellular vesicles (EV) in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored) breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the(More)
Numerous protein plaques cover the apical surface of mammalian urinary bladder epithelial cells. These plaques contain four integral membrane proteins, called uroplakins, which form a well-ordered array of hexameric complexes. The 3D structure of these naturally occurring 2D crystals was studied by cryo-electron-crystallographic methods using a slow-scan(More)
The molecular mode of action of the lipopeptide SF with zwitterionic and negatively charged model membranes has been investigated with solid-state NMR, light scattering, and electron microscopy. It has been found that this acidic lipopeptide (negatively charged) induces a strong destabilization of negatively charged micrometer-scale liposomes, leading to(More)